The Fourth Alabama Painting by Don Troiani

Second Brigade, Army of the Potomac

Major J B Walton, acting chief of artillery, Washington Battalion Artillery

Major & Acting Chief of Artillery, J B Walton, Washington Battalion Artillery

Washington Battalion Artillery

Mustered in Confederate service for one year 26 May, 1861. First and Second Companies arrived at Manassas Junction, Virginia, 25 June, 1861, and Third and Fourth Companies 8 July, 1861. Stationed at Union Mills, McLean's, and Blackburn's Fords, on the Bull Run River, and near McLean's Farm, 21 July, 1861

MAJOR J B WALTON
Captain J B Walton, Washington Artillery, was appointed major, Washington Battalion Artillery, on 3 May, 1861, and was assigned to command the Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st and 4th Companies, on 20 July, 1861.

First Company: CAPTAIN H M ISAACSON, Washington Battalion Artillery, First Company
Captain H M Isaacson, Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was not present for duty on 18 and 21 July, 1861, and resigned at Camp Louisiana, near Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, on 14 July, 1861. His resignation was accepted by Special Orders No.125, Paragraph XIV, Adjutant & Inspector General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, on 16 August, 1861, and First Lieutenant C W Squires, Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was assigned to command the Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, on 18 and 21 July, 1861.
Section: FIRST LT. C W SQUIRES, Washington Battalion Artillery, First Company
First Lieutenant C W Squires was appointed captain, Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, on 27 September, 1861.

Three 6 pounder smoothbores, M1841

Section: FIRST LT. J B RICHARDSON, Washington Battalion Artillery, First Company

Two 6 pounder 3 inch rifles

Assignment: Sixth Brigade, Army of the Potomac (See the Sixth Brigade, Army of the Potomac).

Major J B Walton, Washington Battalion Artillery, was assigned to command the Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st and 4th Companies, and First Lieutenant J B Whittington and Second Lieutenant J Dearing, Washington Battalion Artillery, 3rd Company, were assigned to the Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, on 20 July, 1861. There is no documentation of Captain H M Isaacson, Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, being present on 18 and 21, July, 1861, and was stationed at Camp Beauregard, Union Hill, near Richmond, Virginia, on 25 June, 1861.

Second Company: FIRST LIEUTENANT T L ROSSER, Washington Battalion Artillery, Second Company
T L Rosser was appointed first lieutenant, artillery, Confederate States Army, on 16 March, 1861, and was on recruiting duty at Wilmington, New Hanover County, North Carolina, on 5 June, 1861. He was ordered to Richmond, Virginia, by Special Orders No.65, Paragraph VII, Adjutant & Inspector General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, on 6 June, 1861, and was temporarily assigned to the Washington Battalion Artillery, 2nd Company, by Special Orders No.66, Paragraph IV, Adjutant & Inspector General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, on 7 June, 1861.
Section: FIRST LT. C C LEWIS, Washington Battalion Artillery, Second Company
First Lieutenant C C Lewis' resignation was accepted by Special Orders No.130, Paragraph XIII, Adjutant & Inspectors General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, on 21 August, 1861.

Two 12 pounder field howitzers

Section: SECOND LT. C H SLOCOMB, Washington Battalion Artillery, Second Company
Second Lieutenant C H Slocomb, Washington Battalion Artillery, 2nd Company, resigned in November 1861 and was assigned to the Washington Battalion Artillery, 5th Company, on 6 March, 1862.

Two 12 pounder field howitzers

Assignment: Second Brigade, Army of the Potomac (See the Second Brigade, Army of the Potomac).

Note: Second Lieutenant H A Battles, Washington Battalion Artillery, 4th Company, was assigned to the Washington Battalion Artillery, 2nd Company, on 20 July, 1861.

Third Company: CAPTAIN M B MILLER, Washington Battalion Artillery, Third Company
Section: FIRST LT. J NORCUM, Washington Battalion Artillery, Fourth Company

Two 6 pounder smoothbores, M1841

Assignment: Third Brigade, Army of the Potomac (See the Third Brigade, Army of the Potomac).

Section: JunioR First LT. J J GARNETT, Washington Battalion Artillery, Third Company
J J Garnett was appointed second lieutenant, artillery, Confederate States Army, on 25 April, 1861, and was appointed junior first lieutenant, Washington Battalion Artillery, 3rd Company, by Special Orders No.76, Adjutant & Inspectors General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, on 9 July, 1861, dated 20 June, 1861. First Lieutenant L A Adam, Washington Battalion Artillery, 3rd Company, reported sick after being engaged in the battle of Blackburn's Ford, Virginia, on 18 July, 1861.

6 pounder smoothbore, M1841 & 6 pounder 3 inch rifle

Assignment: Fourth Brigade, Army of the Potomac (See the Fourth Brigade, Army of the Potomac).

Note: First Lieutenant J B Whittington and Second Lieutenant J Dearing, Washington Battalion Artillery, 3rd Company, were assigned to the Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, on 20 July, 1861, and First Lieutenant J Norcum, Washington Battalion Artillery, 4th Company, was assigned to the Washington Battalion Artillery, 3rd Company, the same day.

Fourth Company: CAPTAIN B F ESHLEMAN, Washington Battalion Artillery, Fourth Company
Captain B F Eshelman was wounded during the skirmish at Blackburn's Ford, Virginia, on 18 July, 1861, and First Lieutenant C W Squires, Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was assigned to command the Washington Battalion Artillery, 4th Company, on 20 July, 1861.

Assignment: Sixth Brigade, Army of the Potomac (See the Sixth Brigade, Army of the Potomac).

Note: Major J B Walton, Washington Battalion Artillery, was assigned to command the Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st and 4th Companies; First Lieutenant J Norcum, Washington Battalion Artillery, 4th Company, to the Washington Battalion Artillery, 3rd Company; and Second Lieutenant H A Battles, Washington Battalion Artillery, 4th Company, to the Washington Battalion Artillery, 2nd Company, on 20 July, 1861. First Lieutenant W I Hodgson, Washington Battalion Artillery, 4th Company, was assigned to recruiting duty at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, during the first battle of Manassas on 21 July, 1861.

Fifth Company: CAPTAIN W I HODGSON
First Lieutenant W I Hodgson, 4th Company, was appointed captain, Washington Battalion Artillery, 5th Company, on 27 June, 1861.
Section: SENIOR FIRST LT. C H SLoCOMB
Second Lieutenant C H Slocomb, Washington Battalion Artillery, 2nd Company, resigned on 7 November, 1861, and was appointed junior first lieutenant, Washington Battalion Artillery, 5th Company, on 6 March, 1862.

Two 12 pounder Field Howitzers

Section: JUNIOR FIRST LT. W C D WAUGHT

Two 6 pounder 3 inch rifles

Section: SECOND LT. E L HEWS

Two 6 pounder Smoothbores, M1841

Note: First Lieutenant W I Hodgson, Washington Battalion Artillery, 4th Company, was assigned to recruiting duty at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, during the first battle of Manassas on 21 July, 1861, and eighty-one men of the Washington Battalion Artillery Reserve Corps were assigned to the Washington Battalion Artillery, 5th Company, on 27 June, 1861. The Washington Battalion Artillery, 5th Company, was mustered in Confederate service for ninety days, under the command of Captain W I Hodgson, at Lafayette Square, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, on 6 March, 1862, and the Washington Battalion Artillery, 5th Company, and four companies of the 24th Louisiana Infantry, under the command of Colonel M J Smith, were ordered to Corinth, Alcorn County, Mississippi, on 8 March, 1862. The Washington Battalion Artillery, 5th Company, arrived at Corinth, Alcorn County, Mississippi, on 31 March, 1861, and was assigned to Brigadier General P Anderson's Brigade, Second Corps, Army of Mississippi, on 1 April, 1862.

Sixth Company: CAPTAIN H Doane
The Washington Battalion Artillery, 6th Company, under the command of Captain H Doane, was organised at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, on 3 April, 1862.

Louisiana Foot Rifles, First Company

Seige Of Fort Pickens, 22 April-14 September, 1861

The Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company, under the command of Captain H St Paul, was mustered in Confederate service for the Seige of Fort Pickens at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, by Captain J M Galt, Commissary of Subsistence, Confederate States Army, at 10 AM on 22 April, 1861, and was ordered to proceed by the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern Railroad to Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, at 3 PM the same day. The company was accompanied by the Shreveport Greys and arrived by the Alabama & Florida Railroad at Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, via Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama, in the morning on 26 April, 1861. The Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company, was ordered to East Pass, near Santa Rosa Island, Florida, under the command of Major W L Salisbury, 5th Georgia Infantry, on 17 June, 1861, and was ordered to the Warrington Navy Yard, near Warrington, Escambia County, Florida, on 3 July, 1861.

Note: The Shreveport Greys (121), under the commnd of Captain J H Beard, arrived by the steamer Louis D'Or on the Mississippi River at Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, on 19 April, 1861, and was mustered in Confederate service for one year on 20 April, 1861. The Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company (83), and the Shreveport Greys were assigned to Major C M Bradford, 1st Louisiana Infantry, at Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, on 26 April, 1861.

Seventh Louisiana Battalion Infantry (St Paul's Foot Rifles or washington Battalion infantry)

MAJOR H ST PAUL
Captain H St Paul, Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company, was appointed acting major and captain, 7th Louisiana Battalion Infantry, on 1 October, 1861.

Company A Louisiana Foot Rifles, First Company: First Lt. E Macoin
The company was stationed at Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, on 13 September, 1861, and was ordered to proceed by the Alabama & Florida Railroad to Richmond, Virginia, on 14 September, 1861. The company arrived by the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad at Rocketts Old Field, near Richmond, Virginia, in the evening on 18 September, 1861, and was ordered to proceed by the Virginia Central Railroad to Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 27 September, 1861. The company was assigned to the 7th Louisiana Battalion Infantry, under the command of Acting Major & Captain H St Paul, at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 1 October, 1861.
Company B Catahoula Guerllas: CAPT. J W BUHOUP
The company was assigned to the 1st Louisiana Special Battalion Infantry, Company D, on 10 June, 1861, and to the 7th Louisiana Battalion Infantry, under the command of Major & Acting Captain H St Paul, Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company, on 1 November, 1861, dated 1 October, 1861 (See the 1st Louisiana Special Battalion Infantry).
Company C Crescent Blues, Company B: CAPT. Mcg C Goodwyn
The company was mustered in Confederate service for the war at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, by First Lieutenant C W Phifer, cavalry, Confederate States Army, on 8 June, 1861, and was ordered to proceed by the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern Railroad to Lynchburg, Virginia, on 14 June, 1861. The company was assigned to Schaeffer's Battalion Infantry, under the command of Acting Major & Captain F B Schaeffer, Beauregard Rifles, by Special Orders No.94, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 6 July, 1861, and to the 49th Virginia Infantry by Special Orders No.124, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 17 July, 1861. The company was assigned to the 7th Louisiana Battalion infantry, under the command of Acting Major & Captain H St Paul, Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company, at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 1 October, 1861.

The 7th Louisiana Battalion infantry was organised at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 1 October, 1861, and was assigned to the 1st Louisiana Zouaves Battalion Infantry, Companies E (2nd), G, and H, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel G A G Coppens, on 31 May, 1862. The 1st Louisiana Zouaves Battalion Infantry, Companies G and H, were assigned to the 3rd Louisiana Battalion Infantry on 27 June, 1862, and to the 15th Louisiana Infantry, Companies I and K, respectively, under the command of Colonel E Pendleton, on 25 July, 1862.

Seizure of Baton Rouge Barracks and Arsenal, 10 January, 1861

Captain J B Walton, Washington Artillery
Captain J B Walton, Washington Artillery, was ordered to Canal Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, to seize Baton Rouge Arsenal and Barracks, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, by Order No.24, Headquarters, First Brigade, First Division, Louisiana State Troops, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, on 9 January, 1861.

The Washington Artillery, under the command of Senior First Lieutenant H T Voorhies; the Orleans Cadets, under the command of Captain C D Dreux; the Louisiana Guards, under the command of Captain S M Todd; the Crescent Rifles, under the command of First Lieutenant W A Metcalf; the Sarsfield Guards, under the command of Captain J O'Hara; and the Louisiana Foot Rifles, 2nd Company, under the command of Captain S Meilleur, were ordered to proceed by the steamer National to seize the Baton Rouge Arsenal and Barracks, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, under the command of Captain J B Walton, Washington Artillery, in the morning on 10 January, 1861, and was accompanied by Major B Avegno, Louisiana Foot Rifles.

Note: A detachment of nine men of the Washington Artillery, twelve men of the Orleans Cadets, and four men of the Sarsfield Guards were ordered to proceed by the steamer Vicksburg to Baton Rouge Arsenal and Barracks, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, at 5 PM on 10 January, 1861.

Baton Rouge Barracks, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, to Cairo, Alexander County, Illinois, 12 & 13 January, 1861: The 1st United States Artillery, Company D, under the command of Brevet Major & Captain J A Haskin, was ordered to leave Baton Rouge Barracks, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, in the evening on 12 January, 1861, and proceeded by the steamer Marengo on the Mississippi River to Cairo, Alexander County, Illinois, in the morning on 13 January, 1861.

Note: Brevet Major & Captain J A Haskin, 1st United States Artillery, surrendered Baton Rouge Barracks, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, and First Lieutenant J W Todd, United States Ordnance Department, Baton Rouge Arsenal, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, to Governor A B Moore at 5 PM on 10 January, 1861 (See the United States Army, Department of Washington).

East Baton Rouge Regiment, East Baton Rouge Barracks & Arsenal, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, 12 January, 1861: The Pelican Rifles, under the command of Captain W F Tunnard; the National Guards, under the command of Captain H A Rauhman; and the Creole Guards, under the command of Captain J L Fremaux, East Baton Rouge Regiment, and the Baton Rouge Fencibles, under the command of First Lieutenant J H Stith; the Grosse Téte Rangers, under the command of Captain W L Keep; the Delta Rifles, under the command of Captain H M Favrot; and the Carter Minutemen, under the command of Captain J W Fuqua, assigned to the East Baton Rouge Regiment, were ordered to seize the East Baton Rouge Barracks and Arsenal, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, under the command of Colonel L Hebert, East Baton Rouge Regiment, in the evening on 12 January, 1861.

Note: The Baton Rouge Fencibles was mustered in Confederate service as the 7th Louisiana Infantry, Company C, on 7 June, 1861 (See the 7th Louisiana Infantry); the Creole Guards was mustered in Confederate service as 8th Louisiana Infantry, Company A, on 19 June, 1861 (See the 8th Louisiana Infantry).

Baton Rouge Barracks to Baton Rouge Arsenal, East Baton Rouge Parish, to New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, 14 January, 1861: The Washington Artillery, the Orleans Cadets, the Louisiana Guards, the Crescent Rifles, the Sarsfield Guards, and the Louisiana Foot Rifles, 2nd Company, arrived at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, in the morning on 14 January, 1861.

1st Louisiana State Troops, Companies D & E, 16 January, 1861: The 1st Louisiana State Troops, Companies D and E, under the command of Captains H M Pierce and F H Farrar, respectively, arrived at the Baton Rouge Barracks, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel F M Kent, East Baton Rouge Regiment, in the morning on 16 January, 1861.

Seizure of Forts St Philip and Jackson, 11 January, 1861

Major P E ThÉard & Capt. H St Paul
Major P E Théard, Orleans Battalion Artillery, and Captain H St Paul, Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company, were ordered to rendezvous at Phillip Street Wharf, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, at 11 AM on 10 January, 1861.

The Orleans Battalion Artillery, 1st and 2nd Companies, under the command of Captains F Gomez and B W Hebrard, respectively; the Yagers No.1, under the command of Captain F Peters; the Lafayette Company No.2, under the command of Captain C Riehner; the Chasseurs d'Orleans 1814-15, under the command of First Lieutenant L Houidobre, and the Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company, under the command of Captain H St Paul, were ordered to proceed by the steamer Yankee to seize Forts St Philip and Jackson, on the Mississippi River, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, under the command of Major P E Théard, Orleans Battalion Artillery, in the evening on 10 January, 1861, and arrived at Fort Jackson, on the Mississippi River, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, in the morning on 11 January, 1861.

Note: A detachment of twenty-seven men of the Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company, was stationed at the New Orleans Arsenal, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, on 10 January, 1861.

Fort Jackson, on the Mississippi River, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, 11-17 January, 1861: The Orleans Battalion Artillery, 1st and 2nd Companies; the Yagers No.1, the Lafayette Company No.2, and the Chasseurs d'Orleans 1814-15 were assigned to garrison duty at Fort Jackson, on the western bank of the Mississippi River, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, under the command of Major P E Théard, between 11 and 16 January, 1861, and arrived at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, in the morning on 17 January, 1861.

Note: Sergeant H Smith, United States Ordnance, surrendered Fort Jackson, on the Mississippi River, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, to Major P E Théard, Orleans Battalion Artillery, in the morning on 11 January, 1861.

Fort St Philip, on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, 11-17 January, 1861: The Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company, was assigned to garrison duty at Fort St Philip, on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, opposite Fort Jackson, on the western bank of the Mississippi River, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, under the command of Captain H St Paul, Louisiana Foot Rifles, 1st Company, between 11 and 16 January, 1861, and arrived at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, in the morning on 17 January, 1861.

1st Louisiana State Troops, Companies A & B, 11-19 January, 1861: The 1st Louisiana State Troops, Company A, under the command of Captain C M Bradford, was ordered to seize Jackson Barracks, near New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, at 8 PM on 11 January, 1861, and proceeded by the towboat Ophelia to Fort Jackson, on the western bank of the Mississippi River, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, at 6 AM on 16 January, 1861. The 1st Louisiana State Troops, Company B, under the command of Captain J A Jaquess, was ordered to proceed by steamer to Fort St Philip, on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, opposite Fort Jackson, on the western bank of the Mississippi River, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, in the morning on 19 January, 1861.

Note: The 1st Louisiana State Troops, Company B, was mustered in state service at New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, on 12 January, 1861, and a detachment of twenty-five men, under the command of First Lieutenant I Hyams, was ordered to Fort St Philip, on the Mississippi River, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, on 16 January, 1861. Captain C M Bradford, 1st Louisiana State Troops, Company A, was appointed major, 1st Louisiana Infantry, on 2 April, 1861.

Sources

"Two companies of the celebrated Battalion of Washington Artillery, under Major Walton, left for Manassas Junction about 12 o'clock on yesterday."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 25 June, 1861 - N. O. Washington Artillery

"The first company, Chasseurs A'Pieds, or Foot Rifles, from New orleans, arrived in Petersburg yesterday morning. They are direct from Pensacola, where they have been in service for the last five months."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 20 September, 1861 - Chasseurs A'Pieds

"Two of the guns for my battery had been completed when the Washington Artillery, from New Orleans, arrived in Richmond, completely equipped with the exception of two guns. I was earnestly entreated to turn over to them two of the pieces intended for my battery. Realising that it was for the good of the service I granted their request , and this delay occasioned the absence of my battery from the battle of Manassas." 1st Maryland Light Artillery

Richard Snowden Andrews, Lieutenant colonel commanding the First Maryland Artillery, Andrews' Battalion, Confederate States Army: A memoir, edited by Tunstall Smith, Baltimore

"Before leaving Richmond there had been assigned to the Battalion, Lieuts. T L Rosser, James Dearing, and J J Garnett. These young officers had been at West Point Academy when hostilities broke out, resigned, and came home to Virginia before graduating. They were assigned to the artillery as instructors and for general service, and assited very materially in battery drills upon the of Manassas plains."

"On the 21st of July we were up and stirring at daylight, and rode over to Beauregard's head-quarters. The enemy, throwing an occasional shell over us from a big gun on the high ground between Blackburn's ford and Centreville, were evidently feeling for our lines. To-day the guns of our battalion were assigned for duty as follows: Two 6-pounder smooth bores, and two rifle 6-pounders, under command of Lieut. C W Squires and Lieuts. J B Richardson and Whittington, with Col. Early's brigade, bivouacking near Mclean's farm-house. Four 12-pounder howitzers, under Lieut. T L Rosser, commanding; Lieuts. C C Lewis, C H Slocomb, and H A Battles, with Gen. Ewell, at Union Mills ford. Two 6-pounder smooth bores, under Capt. M B Miller and Lieut. Joe Norcum, with Gen. D R Jones's Third Brigade, at McLean's ford. One rifle 6-pounder and one smooth 6-pounder, under command of Lieut. J J Garnett and Lieut. L A Adam, with Gen. Longstreet's Fourth Brigade at Blackburn's ford. Three 6-pounder smooth bores, and two rifle 6-pounders, under command of Lieut. C W Squires and Lieuts. J B Richardson and Whittington, with Col. Early's brigade, bivouacking near Mclean's farm-house, – thirteen guns in all."

In camp and in battle with the Washington Artillery of New Orleans, by William M Owen

Southern Historical Society Papers Volume 11: Sketches of the history of the Washington Artillery, by Colonel J B Walton, Captain J A Chalaron, Colonel B F Eschelman, and Colonel W M Owen

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 6 December, 1861 - Army of the Potomac

A soldier's story of the war including the marches and battles of the Washington Artillery, and of other Louisiana troops

The pride of the Confederate artillery: The Washington Artillery in the Army of Tennessee, by Nathaniel C Hughes

Louisiana: A Guide to Louisiana Confederate Military Organizations 1861–1865, by A W Bergerun, Jr.

Compendium of the Confederate Armies: Louisiana, by Stewart Sifakis

Notes

The Washington Artillery was accepted in state service as the Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Companies, under the command of Major J B Walton, on 3 May, 1861.

Mustered in one year, Lafayette Square, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, 26 May, 1861: The Washington Battalion Artillery was mustered in Confederate service for one year at Lafayette Square, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, by First Lieutenant C W Phifer, cavalry, Confederate States Army, on 26 May, 1861.

New Orleans, Orleans Parish, Louisiana, to Lynchburg, Virginia, 27 May-2 June 1861: The Washington Battalion Artillery, accompanied by a twelve piece brass band, under the leadership of Band Leader J V Gessner, was ordered to Richmond, Virginia, by Special Orders No.52, Paragraph III, Adjutant & Inspectors General's Office, Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama, on 17 May, 1861, and proceeded by the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern Railroad to Lynchburg, Virginia, between 5 and 7 PM on 27 May, 1861. The company arrived by the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad via Jackson, Hinds County, and Iuka, Tishomingo County, Mississippi; Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama; and Grand Junction, Fayette and Hardeman Counties; Chattanooga, Hamilton County; Knoxville, Knox County; and Bristol, Sullivan County, Tennessee, at 12 PM on 2 June, 1861.

Lynchburg to Richmond, Virginia, 3-4 June 1861: The Washington Battalion Artillery was ordered to proceed by the Southside Railroad to Richmond, Virginia, at 10 AM on 3 June, 1861, and arrived by the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad at Camp Beauregard, Union Hill, on the Mechanicsville Turnpike, near Richmond, Virginia, in the morning on 4 June, 1861.

Richmond to Manassas Junction, Virginia, 1st & 2nd Companies, 24-25 June, 1861: The Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st and 2nd Companies, were ordered to proceed by the Virginia Central Railroad to Manassas Junction, Virginia, by Special Orders No.200, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, on 24 June, 1861, dated 22 June, 1861, and arrived by the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, via Gordonsville, Orange County, Virginia, on 25 June, 1861.

Note: The Washington Battalion Artillery, 3rd and 4th Companies, under the command of Captain H M Isaacson, Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, were stationed at Camp Beauregard, Union Hill, near Richmond, Virginia, as there was a delay in receiving field pieces, harness, and drivers on 24 June, 1861.

Manassas Junction, Virginia, to Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 1st & 2nd Companies, 25 June, 1861: The Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st and 2nd Companies, were ordered near Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, by Special Orders No.64, Paragraph II, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 25 June, 1861, dated 24 June, 1861, and arrived at Camp Louisiana, near Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, the same day.

Note: The Washington Battalion Artillery, 1st and 2nd Companies, were assigned to Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, by Special Orders No.64, Paragraph II, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 24 June, 1861.

Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 3rd & 4th Companies, 7-8 July, 1861: The Washington Battalion Artillery, 3rd and 4th Companies, were ordered to proceed by the Virginia Central Railroad to Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 7 July, 1861, and arrived by the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, via Gordonsville, Orange County, Virginia, on 8 July, 1861. The companies arrived at Camp Louisiana, near Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, the same day.

Reconnaissence to Occoquan, Prince William County, Virginia, 12-14 July, 1861: One 12 pounder field howitzer and one 6 pounder 3 inch rifle of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of First Lieutenant C W Squires, were ordered on a reconnaissence to Occoquan, Prince William County, Virginia, under the command of Colonel J A Early, 24th Virginia Infantry, between 12 and 14 July, 1861, and was accompanied by the 7th Virginia Infantry, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel L B Williams (See the 7th Virginia Infantry).

Note: The section of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of First Lieutenant C W Squires, arrived Camp Louisiana, near Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, on 14 July, 1861.

Distribution of the Washington Battalion Artillery, 16 July, 1861: Two 12 pounder field howitzers and two 6 pounder 3 inch rifles of the Washington Battalion Artillery were assigned to the Second Brigade, Army of the Potomac, under the commmand of Brigadier General R S Ewell, at Union Mills Ford, on the Bull Run River (See the Second Brigade, Army of the Potomac); two 6 pounder smoothbores to the Third Brigade, Army of the Potomac, under the commmand of Brigadier General D R Jones, at McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River (See the Third Brigade, Army of the Potomac); one 12 pounder field howitzer and one 6 pounder 3 inch rifle to the Sixth Brigade, Army of the Potomac, under the commmand of Colonel J A Early, 24th Virginia Infantry, near Union Mills Ford, on the Bull Run River (See the Sixth Brigade, Army of the Potomac); and two 6 pounder smoothbores to the Fourth Brigade, Army of the Potomac, under the commmand of Brigadier General J Longstreet, at Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, on 16 July, 1861 (See the Fourth Brigade, Army of the Potomac).

Note: The Washington Battalion Artillery was stationed at Camp Louisiana, near Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, on 15 July, 1861.

Mitchell's Ford to Union Mills Ford, on the Bull Run River, 17 July, 1861: Two 12 pounder field howitzers and two 6 pounder 3 inch rifles of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of First Lieutenants T L Rosser and C C Lewis, and Second Lieutenant C H Slocomb, and one 12 pounder field howitzer and one 6 pounder 3 inch rifle, under the command of First Lieutenant C W Squires, were ordered near Union Mills Ford, on the Bull Run River, in the morning on 17 July, 1861.

Mitchell's Ford to Blackburn Ford, on the Bull Run River, 17 July 1861: Two 6 pounder smoothbores of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of Second Lieutenant J J Garnett, were ordered to Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, in the morning on 17 July, 1861.

Mitchell's Ford to McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 17 July 1861: Two 6 pounder smoothbores of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of Captain M B Miller, were ordered to McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, in the morning on 17 July, 1861.

Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, to Mclean's Farm, 17 July 1861: Two 6 pounder smoothbores of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of Captain B F Eshleman, First Lieutenants J B Whittington and L A Adam, and one 12 pounder field howitzer, under the command of Major J B Walton, were ordered to McLean's Farm in the morning on 17 July, 1861.

Note: One 12 pounder field howitzer and one 6 pounder 3 inch rifle of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of First Lieutenants C W Squires and J B Richardson, were assigned to the Sixth Brigade, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Colonel J A Early, 24th Virginia Infantry, on 17 July, 1861, and one 12 pounder field howitzer, under the command of Major J B Walton, was ordered to Union Mills Ford, on the Bull Run River, in the morning on 18 July, 1861.

Union Mills Ford to Camp Walker, on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, near McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 18 July, 1861: One 12 pounder field howitzer and one 6 pounder 3 inch rifle of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of First Lieutenants C W Squires and J B Richardson, were ordered near McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, under the command of Colonel J A Early, 24th Virginia Infantry, in the morning on 18 July, 1861, and were accompanied by six companies of the 24th Virginia Infantry, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel P Hairston; the 7th Virginia Infantry, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel L B Williams, and the 7th Louisiana Infantry. First Lieutenants C W Squires and J B Richardson arrived at Camp Walker, on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, near McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, the same day.

Note: One 12 pounder field howitzer and one 6 pounder 3 inch rifle of the Washington Battalion Artillery were stationed on the road between Camp Walker, on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, near McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, and McLean's Farm in the morning on 18 July, 1861.

Mclean's Farm to Camp Walker, on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, near McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 18 July 1861: One 12 pounder field howitzer of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of Major J B Walton, arrived at Camp Walker, on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, near McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, in the morning on 18 July, 1861, and exchanged two 12 pounder field howitzers with two 6 pounder 3 inch rifles the same day.

Note: Two 6 pounder 3 inch rifles of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of First Lieutenant T L Rosser, stationed at Union Mills Ford, on the Bull Run River, were assigned to First Lieutenants C W Squires and J B Richardson in the morning on 18 July, 1861.

Skirmish at Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 18 July, 1861: Three 6 pounder 3 inch rifles of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of First Lieutenants C W Squires and J B Richardson, and two 6 pounder smoothbores, under the command of Captain B F Eshleman, First Lieutenants J B Whittington, and L A Adam, were ordered to the left of the road between McLeans' Farm and Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, at 12 PM on 18 July, 1861, and two 6 pounder smoothbores, under the command of Second Lieutenant J J Garnett, arrived on the road between McLeans' Farm and Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, the same day.

Note: Two 6 pounder smoothbores of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of Captain B F Eshleman, First Lieutenants J B Whittington, and L A Adam, were stationed at McLean's Farm in the morning on 18 July, 1861.

Captain B F Eshelman & First Lieutenant J B Richardson, Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 18 July, 1861: Two 6 pounder 3 inch rifles of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of Captain B F Eshelman and First Lieutenant J B Richardson were ordered to Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, under the command of Colonel J A Early, 24th Virginia Infantry, in the afternoon on 18 July, 1861, and were accompanied by the 7th Louisiana Infantry and the 7th Virginia Infantry.

Second Lieutenant J J Garnett, Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 18 July, 1861: One 6 pounder 3 inch rifle and four 6 pounder smoothbores of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of Second Lieutenant J J Garnett, were ordered to Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River, on 18 July, 1861, and were accompanied by six companies of the 24th Virginia Infantry.

Distribution of Washington Battalion Artillery, 21 July, 1861: Four 12 pounder field howitzers of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of First Lieutenant T L Rosser, were stationed at Union Mills Ford, on the Bull Run River; two 6 pounder smoothbores, under the command of Captain M B Miller and Junior First Lieutenant J Norcom, at McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River; one 6 pounder smoothbore and one 6 pounder 3 inch rifle, under the command of Second Lieutenant J J Garnett, at Blackburn's Ford, on the Bull Run River; and two 6 pounder 3 inch rifles and three 6 pounder smoothbores, under the command of First Lieutenants C W Squires, J B Richardson, and J B Whittington, on the road between Camp Walker, on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, near McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, and McLean's Farm in the morning on 21 July, 1861.

Note: First Lieutenant C C Lewis, and Second Lieutenants C H Slocomb and H A Battles, Washington Battalion Artillery, were stationed at Union Mills Ford, on the Bull Run River, on 21 July, 1861.

After the first battle of Manassas two 6 pounder 3 inch rifles and three 6 pounder smoothbores of the Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of First Lieutenants C W Squires, J B Richardson, and J B Whittington, was stationed near the Stone Bridge, on the Bull Run River, on 22 July, 1861, and the Washington Battalion Artillery arrived at Camp Louisiana, near Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, on 24 July, 1861.

Note: The Washington Battalion Artillery was assigned to the First Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Major J B Walton, by Special Orders No.169, Paragraph II, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, on 25 July, 1861.

Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, to Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, 21 August, 1861: Two 6 pounder three inch rifles and two 12 pounder field howitzers of the Washington Battalion Artillery were assigned to the Fourth Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, at Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.257, Paragraph III, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 21 August, 1861.

Note: One 6 pounder three inch rifle and two 12 pounder field howitzers of the Washington Battalion Artillery were temporarily assigned to the Third Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, at Germantown, Fairfax County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.269, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 26 August, 1861.

Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River to Germantown, Fairfax County, Virginia, 1 September, 1861: The Washington Battalion Artillery was ordered to Germantown, Fairfax County, Virginia, by Special Orders No. 280, Paragraph I, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 1 September, 1861, dated 29 August, 1861, and arrived at Camp Orleans, near Germantown, Fairfax County, Virginia, the same day.

Surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Appomattox County, Virginia, 9 April, 1865: The Washington Battalion Artillery, under the command of Captain E Owen, 1st Company, surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Appomattox County, Virginia, on 9 April, 1865.

Drill instructors, Richmond, Virginia, June 1861: First Lieutenant T L Rosser, Second Lieutenant J J Garnett and Second Lieutenant J Dearing resigned at the West Point Military Academy, New York, and were assigned to the Washington Battalion Artillery as instructors and for general service at Richmond, Virginia, in June 1861.

The Washington Battalion Artillery was assigned to the First Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Major J B Walton, by Special Orders No.169, Paragraph II, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, on 25 July, 1861.

Reports

Official Report No.78: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), Chapter IX, pp465-467
Major J B Walton, Washington Battalion Artillery, of operations 18 July, 1861, dated Camp Louisina, near Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 2 August, 1861

Official Report No.79: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), Chapter IX, pp467-469
First Lieutenant C W Squires, Washington Battalion Artillery, of action at Blackburn's Ford, dated Camp Louisina, near Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 1 August, 1861

Official Report No.85: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), Chapter IX, pp515-518
Major J B Walton, Washington Battalion Artillery, dated near the Stone Bridge, on Bull Run River, 22 July, 1861

Orders of Battle

The above painting, 'The Fourth Alabama', is by Don Troiani, modern America's finest historical artist.