The Fourth Alabama Painting by Don Troiani

Unassigned, Army of the Shenandoah

Colonel J E B Stuart

Colonel J E B Stuart, commanding the 1st Virginia Cavalry

First Virginia Cavalry

Mustered in Confederate service on 1 July, 1861, and arrived at Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 20 July, 1861. Stationed in the rear between Ball's abd Island Fords, Virginia, on 21 July, 1861

COLONEL J E B STUART
Lieutenant Colonel J E B Stuart was appointed colonel, 1st Virginia Cavalry, on 16 July, 1861, and was assigned to command the cavalry, Army of the Shenandoah, on 21 July, 1861.

LIEUTENANT COLONEL F LEE
Captain F Lee was assigned to the staff of Brigadier General R S Ewell on 21 July, 1861, and was appointed as lieutenant colonel on 29 September, 1861.

MAJOR R SWAN

Company A Newtown Light Dragoons: CAPT. J H DRAKE
The company was organised at Middleton, Frederick County, Virginia, in 1858 and was mustered in state service on 19 April, 1861. The company was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, the same day.
Company B Berkeley Troop: CAPT. J B HOGE
The company was organised at Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, in 1860 and was mustered in state service on 19 April, 1861. The company was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, the same day.
Company C Rockbridge Dragoons No.1: CAPT. M X WHITE
The company was organised at Fancy Hill, Rockbridge County, Virginia, on 12 May, 1859, and was mustered in state at Lexington, Rockbridge County, Virginia, service on 18 April, 1861. The company was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, the same day and arrived at Staunton, Augusta County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861. The company was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, the same day and arrived via Harrisonburg, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 24 April, 1861.
Company D Clarke Cavalry: CAPT. J F HARDESTY
The Clarke Cavalry was organised at Berryville, Clarke County, Virginia, in April 1859 and was mustered in state service on 18 April, 1861. Captain J F Hardesty resigned in the morning on 21 July, 1861, and First Lieutenant W Taylor was assigned to command the company during the first battle of Manassas as First Lieutenant H M Nelson was appointed capatin but was not present for duty. The company was assigned to the 6th Virginia Cavalry, Company D, by Special Orders No.414, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, on 9 October, 1861.
Company E Valley Rangers: CAPT. W PATRICK
The company was mustered in state service at Waynesboro, Augusta County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861, and was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, the same day. The company arrived at Harrisonburg, Rockingham County, Virginia, in the evening on 19 April, 1861, and was ordered to proceed to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in the morning on 20 April, 1861. The company arrived at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, via Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, the same day.
Company F Shepherdstown Troop: CAPT. W A MORGAN
The company was organised at Billmeyer's Mill, near Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, Virginia, under the command of Captain J Reinhart, in 1858 and was mustered in state service for twelve months on 18 April, 1861.
Company G Amelia Light Dragoons: CAPT. C R IRVING
The company was organised at Amelia Courthouse, Amelia County, Virginia, in April 1861 and was ordered to Camp Ashland, near Ashland, Hanover County, Virginia, on 9 May 1861. The company was ordered to Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 2 July, 1861, and arrived in the morning on 9 July, 1861. The company was assigned to the 1st Virginia Cavalry at Camp Jeff Davis, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, Virginia, the same day. Captain S S Weisiger resigned on 18 July, 1861, and Captain C R Irving was assigned to command the company at the first battle of Manassas.
Company H Loudoun Light Horse: CAPT. R W CARTER
The company was organised at Union, Monroe County, Virginia, in 1859 and was mustered in state service on 27 April, 1861. The company was ordered to Point of Rocks, Frederick County, Maryland, on 28 April, 1861, and was assigned to Captain T Ashby between 28 April and 9 June, 1861 (See the 7th Virginia Cavalry). The company was stationed at Furnance Ridge, Bolivar Heights, near Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in May 1861, and was reassigned to the 1st Virginia Cavalry at Camp Jeff Davis, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, Virginia, in June 1861.
Company I Harrisonburg Cavalry: CAPT. T L YANCEY
The company was mustered in state service at Harrisonburg, Augusta County, Virginia, on 22 May, 1861, and was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 23 May, 1861. The company arrived at Berryville, Clarke County, Virginia, in the evening the same day and arrived at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 24 May, 1861.
Company K Rockingham Cavalry or River Rangers: CAPT. E S YANCEY
The company was organised at McGaheysville, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 28 May, 1861, and arrived at Winchester, Frederick County, on 30 May, 1861. The company was assigned to scouting duty near Leesburg, Loudoun County, Virginia, in June 1861 and was ordered to Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia, on 14 June, 1861. The company arrived at Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia, on 15 June, 1861, and was assigned to scouting duty until 18 July, 1861. The company was assigned to the 6th Virginia Cavalry, Company C, by Special Orders No.414, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, on 9 October, 1861.
Company L (1st) Washington Mounted Rifles: CAPT. W E JONES
The company was organised at Abingdon, Washington County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861, and was ordered to Richmond, Virginia, on 31 May, 1861. The company arrived at Richmond, Virginia, on 17 June, 1861, and was ordered to the Camp Ashland, near Ashland, Hanover County, Virginia, on 22 June, 1861. The company was ordered to Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 2 July, 1861, and arrived in the morning on 9 July, 1861. The company was assigned as Company D (2nd) to replace the Clarke Cavalry on 12 September, 1861.
Company L (2nd) Gloucester Light Dragoons: CAPT. J W PULLER
The company was organised at Gloucester Courthouse, Gloucester County, Virginia, on 7 May, 1861, and was assigned to the 26th Virginia Infantry between 31 August, 1861, and 28 February, 1862. The company was assigned to the 1st Virginia Cavalry in April 1862 and shortly afterwards was assigned to the 5th Virginia Cavalry, Company A.
Company M Howard Dragoons: CAPT. G R GAITHER
The company reported to Major General G H Steuart, Maryland State Militia, at Baltimore City, Maryland, on 20 April, 1861, and was ordered across the Potomac River at Point of Rocks, Frederick County, Maryland, in May 1861. The company rendezvoused at Leesburg, Loudoun County, Virginia, on 14 May, 1861, and assigned to guard duty at Edward's Ferry, Virginia, on the Potomac River, under the command of Colonel E Hunton, in May and June 1861 (See the 8th Virginia Infantry). The company was ordered to Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 17 June, 1861, and was assigned to the 7th Virginia Cavalry, Company B, under the command of Colonel A W McDonald, the same day (See the 7th Virginia Cavalry). The company was ordered to Romney, Hampshire County, on 18 June, 1861, and arrived on 19 June, 1861. The company declined service with the 7th Virginia Cavalry owing to dissatisfaction and was ordered to Berryville, Clarke County, Virginia, until the Army of the Shenandoah had proceeded across the Shenandoah River on 18 July, 1861. The company was reassigned to the 1st Virginia Cavalry at Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, Virginia, between 19 and 20 July, 1861, and was mustered in Confederate service for twelve months at Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 28 July, 1861. The company was assigned to the 1st Maryland Cavalry, Company K, on 6 August, 1864.
Company N Natchez Cavalry or Adams Troop: CAPT. W T MARTIN
The company was organised at Natchez, Adams County, Mississippi, and was mustered in state service on 13 May, 1861. The company was ordered to proceed independently to Camp Ashland, Hanover County, Virginia, and was mustered in Confederate service on 16 June, 1861. The company was ordered to Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 17 August, 1861, and was assigned to the 1st Virginia Cavalry. The company was assigned to the 2nd Mississippi Battalion Cavalry, Company A, under the command of Major W T Martin, on 24 October, 1861.
 
Company O Sumter Mounted Guards: CAPT. W M STONE
The company was organised at Livingston, Sumter County, Alabama, and was assigned to the 2nd Mississippi Battalion Cavalry, Company D, on 24 October, 1861.

Sources

"Among the troops encamped here are the following companies: Cavalry - Governor's Guard; Chesterfield, company B; Hanover Troop; Henrico Troop; Amelia Light Dragoons."

Richmond Daily Dispatch, 14 May, 1861 - Camp Ashland, Hanover co., Va., 12 May, 1861

"When we left the Valley, Stuart sent Captain Patrick's company to watch Patterson, whose army was in camp at Charles Town, and to screen the transfer of the army to the east of the Blue Ridge."

"Our regiment was divided during the battle, and the squadron to which I belonged was placed under a Major Swan, a Marylander."

"Our regiment had been divided in the morning; half was taken to charge the enemy early in the action and the remaining part (ours and Amelia Co.) were held as a reserve, to cover the retreat of our forces, if unsuccessful, and to take advantage of any favorable moment."

The Memoirs of Colonel John S. Mosby, by John S Mosby

"We had almost daily skirmishing with the Federal Army until we were ordered to Manassas, 19th July, 1861. July 21st, 1861, about 2 o'clock P. M. the first regiment was ordered to charge the New York Zouaves. My captain and 1st Lieut. being absent, I was in command of my Co.; 1st Sergt. Holmes Conrad (V. M. I., '58), 2nd in command; loss: 11 horses killed, no men."

The Corps forward: The biographical sketches of the VMI Cadets who fought in the battle of New Market: 136, James Septimus Larrick, by Colonel William Couper

"This was Scotts grand effort and he was completely routed. Many were killed and many were wounded. Among the killed was Wm Lee, Sally Robbins husband. None of our Shepherdstown company were killed or wounded. They were not immediately engaged. Report says that Colonel Allen hacked and lost 3 horses from my company. You must excuse this style of writing as I am in a great hurry."

Correspondence of Colonel William A. Morgan, manuscript, 1853–1889: Captain William A. Morgan, 1st Virginia Cavalry, 23 July, 1861, Manassas Junction

"A vacancy having occured in the captaincy of his old company, the Clarke Cavalry, he was elected to fill it, on the day of the first battle of Manassas. Immediately on hearing of this election, notwithstanding his very delicate health, he set off to assume command, but of necessity too late to take part in that glorious day, which was to him a keen dissappointment."

The University memorial: Biographical sketches of alumni of the University of Virginia who fell in the Confederate War, five Volumes in one, by Rev John Lipscomb Johnson, B A

"The first service the company did was to picket at Edward's Ferry, on the Potomac River, at which place and at Leesburg it remained until about the 15 of June, 1861, when the company was sent to Winchester and reported to Colonel Angus McDonald, wit whom it marched to Romney, having been united with Captain Turner Ashby's company."

"On July 18, when General Johnston started from Winchester to the relief of Beauregard, who had been attacked at Manassas, Captain Gaither was ordered to Berryville with his company, there to remain until the last of the infantry had crossed the Shenandoah River, when he was to report to Colonel J E B Stuart, in command of the First Virginia Cavalry, and captain Gaither joined Colonel Stuart at Piedmont, and then the company became known as Company M, Colonel Stuart having so designated it."

The Maryland Line in the Confederate Army, 1861-1861, by W W Goldsborough

"Before that the separate companies had been parcelled out to different infantry brigades for orderly and escort duty and on the eve of the fight the two regiments were so depleted by detachments for similar purposes that neither one had more than 150 men left for action."

Bull Run Remembers, by Joseph M Hanson

"A little later a Maryland company commanded by Captain George Gaither, reported to me at Leesburg, and became temporarily a part of my command."

Autobiography of Eppa Hunton

"Col. J E B Stuart arranged the companies so that the first organized were in advance; the oldest being Capt Carter's, as it was a company prior to John Brown's invasion. At the time when the New York Zouaves were attempting to outflank Capt. Imboden's battery, (which had done such able service,) Col. Stuart gave the order to charge to the Cavalry, which was gallantly and daringly obeyed by the Loudoun Cavalry. Leaping a fence, and through balls thick enough to blind them, they succeeded in breaking the lines of the Zouaves, who were around Sherman's battery, which rendered that an easy conquest afterwards. This was the only company who charged at that time, owing, it is thought, to the fact that the Clark Cavalry did not understand the command; hence the dreadful havoc in Captain Carter's ranks, who charged forward with only thirty-three men. (Messrs. J T Carter, Gus Carter, T Leath, C Shamlin, Plaster, and F Carter having been detailed on other duty, were absent)."

Richmond Daily Dispatch, 5 August, 1861 - Report of Captain Welby Carter's company

"The first conflict for which they were ordered out, was the battle of Manassas, which occurred July 21st, 1861."

Aler's history of Martinsburg and Berkeley County, West Virginia, by F Vernon Aler

"Stuart grew restless as the roar of battle approached, and he visited the generals to remind them of the presence of his four companies."

"Lieutenant James S Larrick of the Newtown Troop recalled that the Zouaves rose from the ground in mass, and fired a terrible volley at my men, not a man killed, in my company, but eleven horses were killed and many wounded."

"With the Berkeley and Loudoun and part of the Newtown companies, Stuart rode to defend Jackson's left flank."

"Captain Carter, leading the Berkeley Troop, had his horse shot from under him."

"Formed line by companies. His Rockbridge Dragoons were third in the line."

"Corporal Compton reported that the Rockbridge Dragoons was detached to guard prisoners."

"In the pursuit Lieut. William Taylor alone captured six of the enemy with arms in their hands."

"The Harrisonburg Cavalry suffered one fatality."

"Mosby reported: Late in the day when the enemy was in retreat, Swan halted us in a field within fifty yards of Kemper's guns, which were firing on the retreating troops. That was the very time for us to have been on the enemy's flank. I was near Captain Jones."

"The Howard Dragoons were in column behind a small hill when a shell burst between a set of fours."

The Virginia Regimental Histories Series, First Virginia Cavalry, Second Edition, by R J Driver, Jr.

"In the battle of 21 July, the Clarke Cavalry was on the extreme left of the Confederate line …"

"The Rockingham Cavalry (Company C), for example, served as the first Company K of the 1st Virginia Cavalry. It was present at the Battle of Manassas, but no detailed account of its operations has come to light."

The Virginia Regimental Histories Series, Sixth Virginia Cavalry, Second Edition, by M Musick

"21 July: We were engaged in the battle. Had five men seriously wounded and one horse killed in the charge on the New York Fire Zouaves. Had a part in the chase and captured a number of prisoners." Berkeley Troop

"21 July–31 August: Took part in the battle and since that time have been with the regiment in fairfax County." Rockbridge Dragoons

"21 July: After a forced march of thirty-six hours arrived at Manassas on the eve of the battle. This company was commanded by Lieutenant Taylor, second in the column in the gallant charge made by a portion of the regiment on the New York Zouaves in which the enemy was broken and put to flight. Our men acted with distinguished bravery. After the general retreat we pursued that column fleeing by way of Sudley, some five miles, capturing many prisoners and encamped for the night on flats of Bull Run." Clarke Cavalry

"19–21 July: My company was detached to watch the ford and report any movement of the enemy in that direction. In consequence of thus being detached my company did not arrive in time to participate in the battle of 21 July but we assisted to some extent in the pursuit." Valley Rangers

"21 July: Engaged in the battle of Bull Run." Shepherdstown Troop

"20 July: Arrived Saturday night."

"21 July: Engaged in the ever memorable battle." Amelia Light Dragoons

"21 July: In the morning were battled on to the battle against the grand Army of Abraham Lincoln. We kept under a hill out of range of the enemy's guns until about 10 o'clock when Colonel Stuart received orders to charge the enemy on the extreme left of our line as our troops had commenced to fall back."

"The the Colonel ordered me to charge them, which I did with only thirty-three of my brave men, the others being with the baggage and on special duty, against not less than 700 or 1000 of the picked troops of the Federalists." Loudoun Light Horse

"18–20: The regiment marched from Berryville through Millwood by Ashby's Gap for Manassas Junction, where we arrived on July 20".

"21 July: Engaged in battle at Bull Run." Harrisonburg Cavalry

"21 July: We participated in the grand battle." Washington Mounted Rifles

"Stationed at Camp Onward, 31 August, 1861. Battle of Manassas." Rockingham Cavalry

"June 15–July 18: Scouting around Romney. Marched from Romney to Manassas via Winchester, ninety miles." Howard Dragoons

Supplement to the Official Records: Part II, Record of Events, Volume 69, Serial No.81: Record of events for First Virginia Cavalry, May 1861-August 1864, edited by James B Hewett

"Another gallant soldier gone – We learn that our young friends, George W Messick, son of Gessner Messick, of this vicinity, a member of Captain T L Yancey’s troop of cavalry, was killed in the battle of Sunday last, near Manassas Junction. He had, we learn, been ordered to make a charge for the rescue of some prisoners, when he received a shot in the head, which killed him instantly. He was a gallant soldier, and met his death like a patriot." Harrisonburg Cavalry

Richmond Daily Dispatch, 29 July, 1861: Another gallant soldier gone

"The cavalry under Stuart's command in June 1861, numbered only twenty-one officers and three hundred and thirteen men present for duty."

The life and campaigns of Major General J. E. B Stuart., commander of the cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia, by H B McClellan, A M, late Major, Assistant Adjutant General, and Chief of Staff of the Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

"This company participated in all the principal battles fought by the Army of Northern Virginia, besides many cavalry engagements, from the first battle of Manassas to Appomattox Courthouse."

Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 38: Roster of the Amelia Troop, which constituted Company 'G,' First Regiment Virginia Cavalry, from the beginning to the end of the Confederate war, compiled by George M Wilson

"This company, with eleven other companies, consituted then the 1st Regiment of cavalry, and was commanded by Colonel J E B Stuart until after First Manassas, in which battle he charged Heintzelman's Zouaves with Company D and the Loudoun company. The gallant Lieutenant David H Allen was killed, F H Calmes and Magner were wounded in this charge, and nine men of Loudoun company killed."

Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 24: Company D, Clarke Cavalry, history and roster of this command, which fought gallantly, by Joseph H Shepherd

"While Stuart roamed the field seeking opportunities to insert his troopers in the action, Jones' command remained in reserve under the direction of Major Swann."

Washington County, Viriginia, in the Civil War, by Michael Shaffer

A guide to Virginia military organisations 1861-1865, Revised Second Edition by I A Wallace, Jr.

Notes

The 1st Virginia Cavlary was organised at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in April 1861.

Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, Companies A, B, C, D, E, and H, 19-28 April, 1861: The Newtown Light Dragoons, the Berkeley Troop, and the Clarke Cavalry arrived at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861; the Valley Rangers on 20 April, 1861; the Rockbridge Dragoons No.1 on 24 April, 1861; and the Loudoun Light Horse on 28 April, 1861.

Note: The Rockbridge Dragoons No.1 was stationed at Mount Crawford, Rockingham County, Virginia, at 12 AM on 20 April, 1861.

Distribution, Companies A, B, C, D, E, F, and H, 14-18 May, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry, Companies C, D, E, were stationed at Bolivar, near Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel J E B Stuart; Company A was assigned to picket duty on the Potomac River at the Berlin Bridge, opposite Berlin, Frederick County, Maryland; Company B at Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia; Company F at Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, Virginia; and Company H at Point of Rocks, Frederick County, Maryland, under the command of Captain T Ashby, between 14 and 18 May, 1861 (See the 7th Virginia Cavalry).

Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, to Hainesville, Berkeley County, Virginia, Company I, 2-4 June, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry, Company I, was ordered to Hainesville, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 2 June, 1861, and arrived at Shepherdstown, Berkeley County, Virginia, in the evening the same day. The company arrived at Hainesville via Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 3 June, 1861, and encamped on the Potomac River, opposite Willamsport, Washington County, Maryland, on 4 June, 1861.

Berlin, Frederick County, Maryland, 9 June, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry, Company A, was stationed on the Potomac River, opposite Berlin, Frederick County, Maryland, on 9 June, 1861, and destroyed the Berlin Bridge in the morning the same day.

Honeywood Mill, Berkeley County, Virginia, 10 June, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry was stationed at Camp Clover, on the Potomac River, near Honeywood Mill, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 10 June, 1861, and was engaged in a skirmish with canal hands the same day.

Colonnade Bridge, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, 13 June, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry destroyed the Colonnade Bridge, on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, near Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 13 June, 1861.

Evacuation Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, 15 June, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry was ordered to Charlestown, Jefferson County, Virginia, during the evacuation of Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in the morning on 15 June, 1861, and proceeded to Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, at 10 PM the same day.

Williamsport, Washington County, Maryland, Company E, 19 June, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry, Company E, was stationed on the Potomac River, opposite Williamsport, Washington County, Maryland, on 19 June, 1861, and captured Lieutenant Colonel Bowman and Private E A Chase, aide de camp, 8th Pennsylvania Infantry, the same day (See the 8th Pennsylvania Infantry).

Note: The 1st Virginia Cavalry, Company H, was reassigned to the 1st Virginia Cavalry in June 1861, and Company K was assigned in June or July 1861.

Skirmish at Falling Waters, Berkeley County, Virginia, 2 July, 1861: Lieutenant Colonel J E B Stuart reported to Colonel T J Jackson that the Army of the Upper Potomac had crossed the Potomac River at Williamsport, Washington County, Virginia, and was proceeding to Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, at 7.30 AM on 2 July, 1861. The Berkeley Troop, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel J E B Stuart, captured forty-six men of the 15th Pennsylvania Infantry, Company I, during the skirmish at Falling Waters, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 2 July, 1861 (See the 15th Pennsylvania Infantry).

Falling Waters to Darkesville and Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, Virginia, 2-3 July, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry was ordered to withdraw to Darkesville, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 2 July, 1861, and a detachment of Company E, under he command of Third Lieutenant W B Gallaher, destroyed the brigde on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Cherry Run, near Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, the same day. The 1st Virginia Cavalry encamped at Camp Jeff Davis, near Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 3 July, 1861.

Ashland, Hanover County, to Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, Companies G and L (1st), 2-9 July, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry, Companies G and L (1st), were stationed at Camp Ashland, near Ashland, Hanover County, Virginia, on 2 July, 1861, and were ordered to Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, the same day. Companies G and L (1st) arrived at Camp Jeff Davis, near Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, via Fredericksburg and Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia, at 12 PM on 9 July, 1861.

At 1 AM on 18 July, 1861, the War Department at Richmond, Virginia, ordered General J E Johnston to proceed with the Army of the Shenandoah to Manassas Junction and join the Army of the Potomac, under the command of Brigadier General P G T Beauregard.

Advance to Manassas Junction, Virginia, 19-20 July, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry was ordered to screen the Army of the Shenandoah during the advance to Manassas Junction, Virginia, and to watch the Army of the Upper Potomac, under the command of Major General R Patterson on 18 July, 1861 (See the Army of the Upper Potomac). The regiment was ordered to Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 19 July, 1861, and arrived in the evening on 20 July, 1861. The 1st Virginia Cavalry was ordered near Ball's Ford, Virginia, the same day.

Note: The 7th Virginia Cavalry, Company B, was reassigned to the 1st Virginia Cavalry at Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, Virginia, between 19 and 20 July, 1861.

Assignments, 21 July, 1861: The 1st Virginia Cavalry, Companies A, D, H, and a detachment of Company B, were assigned to Colonel J E B Stuart on the 21 July, 1861, and were engaged in a skirmish wit the 11th New York Infantry during the first battle of Manassas (See the 11th New York Infantry). Companies G and L were assigned to Major R Swann on 21 July, 1861, and Company E was assigned to guard the ford at Berrys Ferry, near Berryville, Clarke County, Virginia, during the first battle of Manassas. The 1st Virginia Cavalry, Company E, did not participate in the first battle of Manassas.

After the first battle of Manassas the 1st Virginia Cavalry was ordered to Camp Onwards, near Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 23 July, 1861, and was on picket duty at Fairfax Station, Falls Church, and Muson's, Mason's and Upton's Hills, Fairfax County, Virginia.

Reorganised, 26 April, 1862: The 1st Virginia Cavalry was reorganised on 26 April, 1862.

Disbanded, Lynchburg, Virginia, 11 April, 1865: The 1st Virginia Cavalry was disbanded at Lynchburg, Virginia, on 11 April, 1865, and one man surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Appotomax County, on 9 April, 1865.

Colonel J E B Stuart, 1st Virginia Cavalry: Captain J E B Stuart, 1st United States Cavalry, resigned on 3 May, 1861, and was appointed a lieutenant colonel, Confederate States Army. Lieutenant Colonel J E B Stuart reported to Colonel T J Jackson at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia on 10 May, 1861, and awas assigned to command of the cavalry of the Army of the Shenandoah on 11 May, 1861.

Note: Captain H M Nelson organised an independent cavalry company and reported to General J E Johnston at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in April 1861. The company was assigned to duty watching the Army of the Upper Potomac, under the command of Major General R Patterson, and when the Army of the Shenandoah was ordered to Manassas Junction, Virginia, by General J E Johnston at 1 AM on 18 July, 1861, the company, not having been mustered in Confederate service, was disbanded. Captain H M Nelson was appointed first lieutenant, 1st Virginia Cavalry, Company D, in July 1861 and captain prior to the first battle of Manassas.

The 6th Virginia Cavalry was organised with eight companies and as the 1st Virginia Cavalry had twelve companies Brigadier General J E B Stuart permitted the Clarke Cavalry and the Rockingham Cavalry to decide by vote whether to be assigned to the 6th Virginia Cavalry or remain in the 1st Virginia Cavalry in August, 1861. The Clarke Cavalry and the Rockingham Cavalry voted to be assigned to the 6th Virginia Cavalry and were assigned by Special Orders No.414, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, on 9 October, 1861.

Report

OFFICIAL REPORT NO.83: Series I, Volume 2 (S# 2), Chapter IX, pp. 482-484
Colonel J E B Stuart, First Virginia Cavalry

Orders of Battle

The above painting, 'Drive Them to Washington', is by Don Troiani, modern America's finest historial artist.