The Fourth Alabama Painting by Don Troiani

Second Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah

First Lieutenant J Pelham

First Lieutenant J Pelham, commanding the Wise Artillery

Wise Artillery

Mustered in Confederate service for one year dated 1 July, 1861. Arrived at Manassas Junction, Virginia, 20 July, 1861. Stationed at the rear of Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 21 July, 1861

CAPTAIN E G ALBURTIS
E G Alburtis was appointed captain, Wise Artillery, at Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 19 November, 1859, and was too ill for duty on 21 July, 1861. First Lieutenant J Pelham, Confederate States Army, was assigned to command the Wise Artillery during the first battle of Manassas on 21 July, 1861, and Captain E G Alburtis, Wise Artillery, resigned on 25 January, 1862.

Section: FIRST LT. J S Brown
J S Brown was appointed first lieutenant, Wise Artillery, at Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 23 November, 1860, and captain, Wise Artillery, on 1 February, 1862.

Two 6 pounder smoothbores, M1841

Section: SECOND LT. G H MURPHY
Second Lieutenant G H Murphy, Wise Artillery, resigned at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 30 July, 1861.

Two 6 pounder smoothbores, M1841

Sources

"Pelham had not slept long on the hard, dry ground when he was roused by a courier who handed him a note. Rubbing his eyes in the dim dawn of a bright Sabbath, Pelham focused his eyes on the order which directed him to assume command of Captain Alburtis’ battery as the older officer was too ill to take the field. Proud of his new responsibility, Lieutenant Pelham notified his men that he would lead them today."

Colonel John Pelham, Lee's boy artillerist, by William Woods Hassler

"Johnston had three batteries of artillery under his command: the Rockbridge Battery, led by Colonel William Pendleton; Grove's Culpeper Battery, under Lieutenant Robert F Beckham; and the Alburtis Battery, commanded by the aging and sickly Captain Ephraim G Alburtis, who suffered from lumbago."

"Pelham worked diligently alongside his gunners as they fashioned crates and old boxes into caissons."

"They reached Manassas at 1:00 AM on Sunday with little more than two hours' rest."

"The morning before dawn John Pelham received information that Ephraim Alburtis was ill, too sick to lead the battery. Thus, the battery Pelham had trained for the past few weeks would be his this day."

"Donations to the Alburtis Battery included two cannon captured from McDowell's fleeing army – a 12-pounder howitzer and a 3-inch rifled gun. These could easily replace some of the old 6-pounders he had used so effectively during the fighting at Bull Run."

The Perfect Lion: The life and death of Confederate artillerist John Pelham, by Jerry H Maxwell

"As acting commander of the Alburtis Battery, Pelham was providing direct support for Colonel Francis bartow’s brigade. His second in command, and the only other officer in the battery, was Jason Findley, a militia second lieutenant who a month earlier had been teaching math in school in Lynchburg."

The Parting: A story of West Point on the eve of the Civil War, by Richard Barlow Adams

"Soon after arriving, Alburtis' Battery deployed with the Thomas Artillery and Jones' Brigade across McLean's Ford and into a location adequate for an "attack upon the enemy on or about the Union Mills and Centreville Road". While the guns were placed in position, nervous and green artillerists prepared for what the next day would bring."

Miscellaneous disbanded Virginia light artillery, First Edition, No.372 of 1000, by R H Moore II

"Alburtis' s role in the battle is unknown. His family was always convinced that he commanded the battery in the fight at First Manassas, and even captured a Federal officer's sword, which became a treasured family relic. Historians have disputed the claim. As precise and correct an officer as Brigadier General T J Jackson, commander of the First Brigade, wrote an official report within days of the battle. He referred to the battery commanders by name, referring to the Alburtis Battery as "the battery under Lieutenant Pelham." Fred R Martin speculated that Alburtis may have commanded the battery early in the action but was compelled to yield command, perhaps by ill health."

The Cannoneer, Volume 7, No.5: Gaither Alburtis Ephriam, by C J Cochrane

Supplement to the Official Records: Part II, Record of Events, Volume 70, Serial No.82: Record of events for Pendleton's First Regiment, Virginia Light Artillery, July 1861-February 1862, edited by James B Hewett

Supplement to the Official Records: Part II, Record of Events, Volume 70, Serial No.82: Record of events for James S. Brown's Battery, Virginia Light Artillery, February-June 1862, edited by James B Hewett

A guide to Virginia military organisations 1861–1865, Revised Second Edition by I A Wallace, Jr.

Notes

The Wise Artillery was accepted in state service at Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861, and was stationed at Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, with two iron 6 pounder smoothbores on 30 April, 1861.

Note: The Wise Artillery was assigned to the 3rd Virginia Militia Artillery, under the command of Colonel J W Ware, on 19 November, 1859.

Mustered in one year, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, 3 May, 1861: The Wise Artillery was mustered in state service for one year as the 1st Virginia Light Artillery, Company B, at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 3 May, 1861 (See the 1st Rockbridge Artillery).

Organisation of 1st Virginia Light Artillery, 3 May, 1861: Captain W N Pendleton, 1st Rockbridge Artillery; Company B, Wise Artillery, Captain E G Alburtis; Company C, Newtown Artillery, Captain G A Groves

Note: The 1st Virginia Light Artillery was not recognised by the Adjutant & Inspector General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, and was disbanded prior to 26 April, 1862.

Hainesville, Berkeley County, to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, 2 June, 1861: The Wise Artillery and the 2nd Virginia Infantry, Company D, were stationed on guard duty at Hainesville, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 1 June, 1861, and were ordered to Martinsburg, Berkeley County, Virginia, on 2 June, 1861 (See the 2nd Virginia Infantry).

Note: The Wise Artillery was assigned to the 1st Virginia Light Artillery, Company B, under the command of Captain W N Pendleton, at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in May 1861, and was disbanded prior to 26 April, 1862 (See the 1st Rockbridge Artillery).

Point of Rocks, Frederick County, Maryland, 8 June, 1861: The Wise Artillery was stationed at Point of Rocks, Frederick County, Maryland, on 8 June, 1861.

General Orders No.25, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, 8 June, 1861: The Wise Artillery was assigned to the Confederate States by General Orders No.25, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, on 8 June, 1861, and was accepted in Confederate service on 1 July, 1861.

Evacuation Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, 15 June 1861: The Wise Artillery evacuated Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in the morning on 15 June, 1861, and arrived by the Charlestown Turnpike at Charlestown, Jefferson County, Virginia, at 3 PM the same day. The company encamped at Camp Johnston, near Bull Skin Run, between Charlestown, Jefferson County, and Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, in the evening on 15 June, 1861.

Charlestown, Jefferson County, to Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, Virginia, 16 June, 1861: The Wise Artillery was ordered to Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, Virginia, at 9 AM on 16 June, 1861, and arrived via Smithfield, Berkeley County, Virginia, in the afternoon the same day. The company encamped on Mill Creek, near Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, Virginia, in the evening on 16 June, 1861.

Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, to Stephenson's Depot, Frederick County, Virginia, 17 June, 1861: The Wise Artillery was ordered to proceed by the Valley Turnpike to Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, at 7 AM on 17 June, 1861, and arrived at Camp Defiance, near Stephenson's Depot, Frederick County, Virginia, the same day.

Note: The Wise Artillery was assigned to the Second Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah, under the command of Colonel F S Bartow, 8th Georgia Infantry, at Camp Defiance, near Stephenson's Depot, Frederick County, Virginia, on 17 June, 1861.

Stephenson's Depot to Hollingsworth Grove, one mile southeast of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, 21-26 June, 1861: The Wise Artillery was ordered one mile south of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 21 June, 1861, and proceeded to Hollingsworth Grove, one mile southeast of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 26 June, 1861.

Hollingsworth Grove, one mile southeast of Winchester, Frederick County, to Darkesville, Berkeley County, Virginia, 2-7 July, 1861: The Wise Artillery was ordered to proceed by the Valley Turnpike to Darkesville, Berkeley County, Virginia, at 12 PM on 2 July, 1861, and arrived via Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, Virginia, at 10 AM on 3 July, 1861. The company was ordered to Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, at 11 AM on 7 July, 1861, and arrived at Hollingsworth Grove, one mile southeast of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, at 6 PM the same day.

The Wise Artillery was ordered to Manassas Junction, Virginia, by Special Orders No.1, Headquarters, Army of the Shenandoah, Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, at 1 AM on 18 July, 1861.

Winchester, Frederick County, to Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, Virginia, 18-19 July, 1861: The Wise Artillery was ordered to proceed by the Millwood Turnpike to Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, Virginia, at 1 PM on 18 July, 1861, and arrived at Berry's Ferry, on the Shenandoah River, via Millwood, Clarke County, Virginia, at 9 PM the same day. The company was ordered across the Shenandoah River at Berry's Ferry, Clarke County, Virginia, in the evening on 18 July, 1861, and arrived at Paris, Fauquier County, Virginia, via Ashby's Gap at 3 AM on 19 July, 1861. The Wise Artillery was ordered to Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, Virginia, at 5 AM the same day and arrived at 11 AM on 19 July, 1861.

Note: The Wise Artillery was assigned to Colonel & Acting Captain W N Pendleton, 1st Rockbridge Artillery, at Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, Virginia, on 19 July, 1861 (See the 1st Rockbridge Artillery).

Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, to Manassas Junction, Virginia, 18-20 July, 1861: The Wise Artillery was ordered to proceed by road to Manassas Junction, Virginia, under the command of Colonel & Acting Captain W N Pendleton, 1st Rockbridge Artillery, at 7 PM on 19 July, 1861, and was accompanied by the 1st Rockbridge Artillery and the Thomas Artillery (See the Thomas Artillery). The company arrived at Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, via Salem and White Plains, Fauquier County, Virginia, at 2 PM on 20 July, 1861.

Note: The Wise Artillery, under the command of Colonel & Acting Captain W N Pendleton, 1st Rockbridge Artillery, was stationed at the rear near McLean's Ford, on Bull Run River, on 20 July, 1861,

Lewis House, Portici, on the Bull Run River, to Smith's Farm, two & a half miles east of Manassas Junction, Virginia, 31 July, 1861: The Wise Artillery was ordered to Smith's Farm, two and a half miles east of Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 31 July, 1861, and arrived at Camp Bartow, on Smith's Farm, two and a half miles east of Manassas Junction, Virginia, the same day.

Note: The Wise Artillery was stationed at Camp Bartow, on Smith's Farm, two and a half miles east of Manassas Junction, Virginia, between 31 July and 11 September, 1861.

Reorganised at Yorktown, York County, Virginia, 26 April, 1862: The Wise Artillery, under the command of Captain J S Brown, was reorganised at Yorktown, York County, Virginia, on 26 April, 1862.

Disbanded near Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, 4 October, 1862: The Wise Artillery, under the command of Captain J S Brown, was disbanded near Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.209, Adjutant & Inspector General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, on 4 October, 1862, and the men and horses were assigned to Eubank's Virginia Artillery, under the command of Captain J L Eubank.

First Lieutenant J Pelham, artillery, Confederate States Army: Cadet J Pelham, West Point Military Academy, resigned on 17 April, 1861, and arrived at Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama, on 10 May, 1861. He was appointed first lieutenant, artillery, Confederate States Army, on 15 May, 1861, dated 16 March, 1861, and was ordered to Lynchburg, Virginia, by Special Orders No.34, Paragraph I, Adjutant & Inspector General's Office, Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama, on 15 May, 1861. First Lieutenant J Pelham, artillery, Confederate States Army, arrived at Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 15 June, 1861, and was assigned as drillmaster to the Wise Artillery on 17 June, 1861.

Colonel F S Bartow, Second Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah: Captain F S Bartow was commissioned colonel, 8th Georgia Infantry, in June 1861 and was assigned to command the Second Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah, on 17 June, 1861.

Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, 25 September, 1861: Major General G W Smith, Confederate States Army, was assigned to the command of the Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, by General Orders No.31, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, on 25 September, 1861.

The Wise Artillery was assigned to the Second Brigade, Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Brigadier General S A M Jones, on 25 September, 1861.

Reports

Official REPORT No.82: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), Chapter IX, pp481-482
Brigadier General T J Jackson, Confederate States Army, First Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah, dated near manassas Junction, Virginia, 23 July, 1861