The Fourth Alabama Painting by Don Troiani

Fourth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah

Colonel S B GibbonsColonel S B Gibbons, 10th Virginia Infantry

Tenth Virginia Infantry

Mustered in Confederate service for one year dated 1 July, 1861. Arrived at Manassas Junction, Virginia, 21 July, 1861

COLONEL S B GIBBONS
Captain S B Gibbons, Harrison Valley Rangers, was appointed colonel, 4th Virginia State Troops, in January 1861.

LIEUTENANT COLONEL E T H WARREN
First Lieutenant E T H Warren, Harrison Valley Rangers, was appointed lieutenant colonel, 4th Virginia State Troops, in January 1861.

MAJOR S T WALKER

Company A Strasburg Guards: CAPT. J STOVER
The company was accepted in state service at Strasburg, Shenandoah County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861.
Company B Rockingham Rifles: CAPT. J KENNEY
The company was accepted in state service at Harrisonburg, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861, and was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in the morning the same day. The company arrived arrived at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, at 9 PM on 18 April, 1861.
Company C (1st) Southern Greys: CAPT. J N SWANN
The company was accepted in state service at Edinburg, Shenandoah County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861, and was disbanded on 18 April, 1862.
Company C (2nd) Mauck's Company: CAPT. R C MAUCK
The company was mustered in state service as the 146th Virginia Militia Infantry (Shenandoah County), Company F, at Harrisonburg, Shenandoah County, Virginia, on 4 July, 1861, and was assigned to garrison duty at Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 11 July, 1861 (See the Virginia Militia). The company was reorganised as light artillery but was not accepted in Confederate service for the war on 10 April, 1862, and was assigned to the 10th Virginia Infantry at Elk Run Creek, near Conrad's Store, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 23 April, 1862.
Company D Bridgewater Greys: CAPT. J S BROWN
The company was accepted in state service at Bridgewater, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861, and was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861. The company was mustered in state service at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 3 May, 1861.
Company E Peaked Mountain Greys: CAPT. W B YANCEY
The company was accepted in state service at McGaheysville, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861, and was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861.
Company F Muhlenberg Rifles: CAPT. S C WILLIAMS
The company was accepted in state service at Woodstock, Shenandoah County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861.
Company G (Harrison) Valley Guards: CAPT. C A SPRINKEL
The company was accepted in state service at Harrisonburg, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861, and was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in the evening the same day.
Company H Chrisman's Infantry: CAPT. G CHRISMAN
The company was accepted in state service at Harrisonburg, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861, and was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861.
Company I Riverton Invincibles or Elk Run Greys: CAPT. W D C COVINGTON
The company was accepted in state service at Conrad's Store and Covington, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861, and was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861.
Company K Page Volunteers: CAPT. W T YOUNG
The company was accepted in state service at Luray, Page County, Virginia, on 2 June, 1861, and arrived at Winchester, Frederick County, on 3 June, 1861. The company was ordered to proceed by the Winchester & Potomac Railroad to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in the morning on 4 June, 1861, and was assigned to the 10th Virginia Infantry at Camp Johnston, Neal's Dam, near Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 23 June, 1861.
Company L Jeff Davis Guards: CAPT. E F Blankenbeker
The company was mustered in Confederate service with men of the 82nd Virginia Militia Infantry (Madison County) at Camp Johnson, near Culpeper Courthouse, Culpeper County, Virginia, on 12 August, 1861, and Captain F F Blankenbeker was appointed major, 82nd Virginia Militia Infantry (Madison County), between 17 July and 13 August, 1861 (See the Virginia Militia Battalion Infantry). The company was assigned to the 10th Virginia Infantry near Standardsville, Greene County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1862.
Band: Band Ldr. C ESCHMAN
The band included ten musicians and a chief musician and was probably disbanded in 1864.

Note: The Tenth Legion Minutemen, under the command of Captain J Gatewood, was accepted in state service at Woodstock, Shenandoah County, Virginia, on 29 April, 1861, and was mustered in state service on 3 June, 1861. The company was ordered to Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, at 5 AM on 6 June, 1861, and arrived at 5 PM the same day. The company encamped at the Town Hall, Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 6 June, 1861, and was ordered to proceed by the Winchester & Potomac Railroad to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, at 8 AM on 7 June, 1861, and arrived at 12 PM via Charlestown, Jefferson County, Virginia, the same day. The company was assigned to the 10th Virginia Infantry on 7 June, 1861, and encamped at the Armory Building the same day. The company was assigned to the 33rd Virginia Infantry at Neal's Dam, near Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 26 June, 1861, and was ordered to Camp E K Smith, near Hollingsworth Mills, Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 29 June, 1861 (See the 33rd Virginia Infantry).

Sources

"Last night we sent off the Valley Guards, Capt. Sprinkel, 75 men; the Rockingham Rifles, 108 men, Capt. Kenney To-day the balance of the Volunteer Regiment, composed of the Bridgewater Grays, Capt. Brown; the Elk Run Grays, Capt. Covington; the Peaked Mountain Grays, Capt. Yancey; the Letcher Brock's Gap Rifles, Capt. Winfield; Chisman's Infantry, Capt. Chisman."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 22 April, 1861 - Harrisonburg, Virginia, 19 April, 1861.

"This morning ninety-six gallant and chivalrous looking volunteers from Luray, Page County, under the command of Capt. Young, left in the cars, and Capt, F. W. M. Holliday's Rifle Mountain Rangers will leave in a few days."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 8 June, 1861 - From Winchester, Va., 4 June, 1861

Shenandoah Herald: Diary of a soldier of the Stonewall Brigade, first year of the war, by John H Grabill

The Virginia Regimental Histories Series, Tenth Virginia Infantry, by Terrence V Murphy

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 25 June, 1861 - Skirmish at New Creek, Caught them napping

Southern Historical Society Papers Volume 28: Very complete roll of Company F, Tenth Virginia Regiment, or the Muhlenburg Rifles, by Herbert F Milev

Supplement to the Official Records: Part II, Record of Events, Volume 71, Serial No.83: Record of events for Tenth Virginia Infantry, May 1861-January 1865, edited by James B Hewett

A guide to Virginia military organisations 1861-1865, Revised Second Edition by I A Wallace, Jr.

Notes

The 10th Virginia Infantry was organised at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in May 1861.

Note: The Rockingham Rifles, the Valley Guards, the Elk Run Greys, the Bridgewater Greys, Chrisman's Infantry, the Peaked Mountain Greys, and the Letcher Brock Gap Rifles were assigned to the 4th Virginia State Troops, under the command of Colonel S B Gibbons, in January 1861 and were stationed at Harrisonburg, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 18 April, 1861.

Harrisonburg, Rockingham County to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, Companies B & G, 18-20 April, 1861: The Valley Guards and the Rockingham Rifles were ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in the evening on 18 April, 1861, and arrived at Mount Jackson, Shenandoah County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861. The Valley Guards and the Rockingham Rifles were ordered to proceed by the Manassas Gap Railroad to Strasburg, Shenandoah County, Virginia, in the morning the same day and arrived at Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861. The Valley Guards and the Rockingham Rifles arrived by the Winchester & Potomac Railroad at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 20 April, 1861.

Harrisonburg, Rockingham County to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, Companies D, E, H, & I, 19-21 April, 1861: The Bridgewater Greys, the Peaked Mountain Greys, Chrisman's Infantry, the Elk Run Greys, and the Letcher Brock's Gap Rifles were ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861, and arrived at Mount Jackson, Shenandoah County, Virginia, the same day. The Bridgewater Greys, the Peaked Mountain Greys, Chrisman's Infantry, the Elk Run Greys, and the Letcher Brock's Gap Rifles were ordered to proceed by the Manassas Gap Railroad to Strasburg, Shenandoah County, Virginia, in the morning on 20 April, 1861, and arrived at Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, the same day. The Bridgewater Greys, the Peaked Mountain Greys, Chrisman's Infantry, the Elk Run Greys, and the Letcher Brock's Gap Rifles arrived by the Winchester & Potomac Railroad at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, on 21 April, 1861.

Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, Companies A, B, C (1st), D, E, F, G, H, & I, 23 April, 1861: The Strasburg Guards, the Southern Greys, the Muhlenberg Rifles, the Valley Guards, the Rockingham Rifles, Chrisman's Infantry, the Bridgewater Greys, the Letcher Brock's Gap Rifles, the Peaked Mountain Greys, and the Elk Run Greys were stationed at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, under the command of Major General K Harper, Fifth Division, Virginia Militia, on 23 April, 1861.

Note: The Strasburg Guards, the Southern Greys, and the Muhlenberg Rifles were assigned to the 10th Virginia Infantry, Companies A, C (1st), and F, respectively, on 2 May, 1861.

Luray, Page County, to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, Company K, 2-4 June, 1861: The Page Volunteers arrived at Winchester, Frederick County, on 3 June, 1861, and was ordered to proceed by the Winchester & Potomac Railroad to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, in the morning on 4 June, 1861.

General Orders No.25, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, 8 June, 1861: The 10th Virginia Infantry was assigned to the Confederate States by General Orders No.25, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, on 8 June, 1861, and was accepted in Confederate service on 1 July, 1861.

Harpers, Jefferson County, to Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, 13 June, 1861: The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to proceed by the Winchester & Potomac Railroad to Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, under the command of Colonel A P Hill, 13th Virginia Infantry, in the morning on 13 June, 1861, and was accompanied by the 13th Virginia Infantry (See the 13th Virginia Infantry). The regiment arrived at the Shenandoah Valley Agricultural Society Fairgrounds, near Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, at 6 PM the same day.

Note: The 3rd Tennessee Infantry arrived by the Valley Turnpike at Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 13 June, 1861 (See the 3rd Tennessee Infantry).

Winchester, Frederick County, to Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia, 17-18 June, 1861: The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to proceed by the Northwestern Turnpike to Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia, under the command of Colonel A P Hill, 13th Virginia Infantry, at 4 AM on 17 June, 1861, and was accompanied by the 13th Virginia Infantry and the 3rd Tennessee Infantry. The regiment arrived at Hanging Rock, Hampshire County, Virginia, in the evening the same day and was ordered to Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia, in the morning on 18 June, 1861. The 10th Virginia Infantry arrived at Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia, at 11 AM the same day and was stationed at the Courthouse, near Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia, on 18 June, 1861.

Note: The Letcher Brock's Gap Rifles was ordered to Hanging Rock, Hampshire County, Virginia, in the morning on 19 June, 1861, and proceeded to Romney, Hampshire County, Virginia, in the afternoon on 22 June, 1861 (See the 7th Virginia Cavalry).

Romney, Hampshire County, to Neal's Dam, on Opequon Creek, three miles south of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, 21-24 June, 1861: The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to proceed by the Northwestern Turnpike to Hanging Rock, Hampshire County, Virginia, on 21 June, 1861, and arrived the same day. The regiment was ordered to Capon Bridge, Hampshire County, Virginia, at 3 PM on 22 June, 1861, and arrived the same day. The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to Hogue Creek, near Lockhart's Gap, Frederick County, Virginia, at 2 AM on 23 June, 1861, and arrived at 7 PM the same day. The regiment was ordered to Neal's Dam, on Opequon Creek, three miles south of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, at 7 AM on 24 June, 1861, and arrived the same day.

Note: The Page Volunteers was assigned to the 10th Virginia Infantry, Company K, at Neal's Dam, on Opequon Creek, three miles south of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 24 June, 1861, and the 10th Virginia Infantry was assigned to the Fourth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah, under the command of Colonel A Elzey, 1st Maryland Infantry, at Neal's Dam, on Opequon Creek, three miles south of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 26 June, 1861.

Neal's Dam, on Opequon Creek, three miles south of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, to Northwestern Turnpike, near Mason's House, Selma, 28 June, 1861: The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to the Northwestern Turnpike, near Mason's House, Selma, on 28 June, 1861, and arrived at Camp Johnston, on the Northwestern Turnpike, near Mason's House, Selma, the same day.

Note: The Tenth Legion Minutemen was assigned to the 33rd Virginia Infantry at Neal's Dam, on Opequon Creek, three miles south of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 26 June, 1861, and was ordered to Hollingsworth Mills, on Abrams Creek, Frederick County, Virginia, on 27 June, 1861 (See the 33rd Virginia Infantry).

Northwestern Turnpike, near Mason's House, Selma, to Darkesville, Berkeley County, Virginia, 2-7 July, 1861: The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to proceed by the Valley Turnpike to Darkesville, Berkeley County, Virginia, at 12 PM on 2 July, 1861, and arrived via Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, Virginia, at 10 AM on 3 July, 1861. The regiment was ordered to Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, in the morning on 7 July, 1861, and arrived at Camp Johnston, on the Northwestern Turnpike, near Mason's House, Selma, at 5 PM the same day.

Note: The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to the tollgate on the Martinsburg Turnpike, three-quarters of a mile north of Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, on 15 July, 1861.

The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to Manassas Junction, Virginia, by Special Orders No.1, Headquarters, Army of the Shenandoah, Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, at 1 AM on 18 July, 1861.

Winchester, Frederick County, to Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, Virginia, 18-19 July, 1861: The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to proceed by the Millwood Turnpike to Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, Virginia, at 5 PM on 18 July, 1861, and arrived at Berry's Ferry, on the Shenandoah River, via Millwood, Clarke County, Virginia, at 7 AM on 19 July, 1861. The regiment was ordered across the Shenandoah River, at Berry's Ferry, Clarke County, Virginia, at 9 AM the same day and arrived at Piedmont Station via Ashby's Gap, Paris, and Upperville, Fauquier County, Virginia, at 10 PM on 19 July, 1861.

Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, to Manassas Junction, Virginia, 21 July, 1861: The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to proceed by the Manassas Gap Railroad to Manassas Junction, Virginia, at 5 AM on 21 July, 1861, and was accompanied by the 1st Maryland Infantry, the 3rd Tennessee Infantry, and the 13th Virginia Infantry, Companies E, F, G, H, I, and K, under the command of Brigadier General E K Smith, Confederate States Army, Fifth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah (See the Fifth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah). The regiment arrived at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, at 1 PM the same day.

Note: Brigadier General E K Smith, Confederate States Army, Fifth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah, assumed command of the Fourth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah, at Piedmont Station, Fauquier County, Virginia, in the morning on 21 July, 1861.

After the first battle of Manassas the 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered near McLean's Ford, on Bull Run River, in the evening on 21 July, 1861, and arrived at Camp Walker, on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, near McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, the same day.

Camp Walker, on the Orange & Alexandria Railroad, near McLean's Ford, on the Bull Run River, to Fairfax Station, Fairfax County, Virginia, 23 July, 1861: The 10th Virginia Infantry was ordered to Fairfax Station, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 10 PM on 23 July, 1861, and was accompanied by 13th Virginia Infantry and the Newtown Artillery. The regiment arrived at Camp Blair, near Fairfax Station, Fairfax County, Virginia, the same day.

Reorganised at Elk Run Creek, near Conrad's Store, Rockingham County, Virginia, 23 April, 1862: The 10th Virginia Infantry was reorganised at Elk Run Creek, near Conrad's Store, Rockingham County, Virginia, on 23 April, 1862.

Surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Appomattox County, Virginia, 9 April, 1865: The 10th Virginia Infantry, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel D H L Martz, surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Appomattox County, Virginia, on 9 April, 1865.

Colonel A Elzey, 1st Maryland Infantry, Fourth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah: Captain A Elzey, 2nd United States Artillery, Light Company E, resigned on 3 March, 1861, and was appointed major, artillery, Confederate States Army, on 18 May, 1861, dated 16 March, 1861 (See the 2nd United States Artillery, Light Company E). Major A Elzey, Confederate States Army, was assigned to mustering duty at Atlanta, Fulton County, Georgia, by Special Orders No.57, Paragraph IV, Adjutant & Inspectors General's Office, Montgomery, Montgomery County, Alabama, on 23 May, 1861, and was appointed colonel, 1st Maryland Infantry, at Richmond, Virginia, on 17 June, 1861. Colonel A Elzey, 1st Maryland Infantry, was assigned to command the Fourth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah, at Winchester, on 24 June, 1861, and was appointed brigadier general, Confederate States Army, on 26 August, 1861, dated 21 July, 1861.

Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, 25 September, 1861: Major General G W Smith, Confederate States Army, was assigned to the command of the Second Corps, Army of the Potomac, by General Orders No.31, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, on 25 September, 1861.

The 10th Virginia Infantry was assigned to the Fourth Brigade, Second Corps, Army of the Shenandoah, under the command of Colonel A Elzey, on 25 September, 1861.

Reports

THE REBELLION RECORD: A Diary of American Events, Volume II, Documents, pp42-43
Colonel A Elzey, Fourth Brigade, Army of the Shenandoah, dated Fairfax Station, Fairfax County, Virginia, 25 July, 1861