The Fourth Alabama Painting by Don Troiani

First Brigade, Army of the Potomac

Second Lieutenant E S McCarthy, Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company

Second Lieutenant E S McCarthy, Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company

Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, First Company

Arrived at Manassas Junction, Virginia, 25 May, 1861. Mustered in Confederate service for one year dated 1 July, 1861. Stationed at Mitchells' Ford, on the Bull Run River, 21 July, 1861

CAPTAIN J C SHIELDS
First Lieutenant J C Shields, Richmond Howitzer Company, was appointed captain, Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, on 8 May, 1861.

Right Section: FIRST LT. W P PALMER
Private W P Palmer, Richmond Howitzer Company, was appointed first lieutenant, Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, on 12 May, 1861.

Two 12 pounder Army howitzers

Left Section: SECOND LT. E S MCCARTHY
Private E S McCarthy, Richmond Howitzer Company, was appointed second lieutenant, Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, on 12 May, 1861.

Two 6 pounder smoothbores, M1841

Sources

"The Howitzer Company paraded yesterday to the number of 200, (enough to make three companies,) and were mustered into service."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 26 April, 1861 - Mustered into service

"The Fayette Artillery and Howitzer Company went into camp yesterday morning. Extensive preparations are being made at the Fairfield race ground and Howard's Grove to accommodate the soldiery now on their way to Richmond."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 29 April, 1861 - Gone into camp

"This body of soldiery, formerly under the command of Capt. G. W. Randolph, has been formed into a Battalion, Captain Randolph ranking as Major, and Messrs. J. C. Shields, J. Thompson Brown and R. C. Stanard, been elected as first, second and third Captains."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 11 May, 1861 - Howitzer Battalion

"The battalion of Richmond Howitzers have been removed from their late camp ground, Howard's Grove, to Chimborazo Heights, overlooking Griffin's Spring, in the vicinity of Rocketts."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 16 May, 1861 - Removed

"The Howitzer Batteries of Captains Latham and Shields had a target practicing on Saturday evening last.Yesterday Latham's battery was sent to Centreville. "

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 1 July, 1861 - Camp Pickens, Company "H", Justice to Capt. Boggs & Miscellaneous news

"General Bonham's brigade was now ordered out in pursuit. One section of our battery under Lieutenant Palmer was sent forard with the columns, and advanced towards Centreville."

"This disposition was deemed necessary to resist the enemy, who it was supposed would display himself at the break of day; he not having done so, as the morning appeared, the whole column under General Bonham crossed the Run and was posted at Mitchell's Ford, the guns of our battery being so placed as to command, from behind the hastily constructed earthworks, the approach to and the ford itself."

Contributions to a history of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion: Pamphlet No. 4, Part III, extracts from an old order book of First Company Richmond Howitzers, by J W Randolph

"John Parker, a slave from King and Queen County, was employed as a laborer on breastworks and artillery batteries near Richmond, but when the Union army began its advance on Manassas, the Confederate military ordered all colored people must come and fight. Arriving two days before the battle, Parker and four other slaves were assigned to a battery after a brief stint of training. He and his fellow slaves, as Gun Battery no.2, opened fire at 10.00 A.M. that fateful morning with grapeshot, and Parker quickly had his hands full handling ammunition, swabbing the cannon, and staying alive."

Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia, by Ervin L Jordan

Contributions to a history of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion: Pamphlet No. 1, Part I, organisation of First Company and John Brown Raid, by Captain H Hudnall, Second Company

The Virginia Regimental Histories Series: The Richmond Howitzers, by L A Wallace, Jr.

A guide to Virginia military organisations 1861-1865, Revised Second Edition by L A Wallace, Jr.

Notes

The Richmond Howitzer Company, 1st Virginia Infantry, Company H, was ordered to Spotswood Hotel, on the corner of Main & Eighth Streets, Richmond, Virginia, on 19 April, 1861, and was accepted in state service on 21 April, 1861 (See the 1st Virginia Infantry).

Wilton's Bluff, on the James River, near Richmond, Virginia, 21-23 April, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Company was ordered to Wilton's Bluffs, on the James River, near Richmond, Virginia, to engage the U. S. S. Pawnee on 21 April, 1861, and was accompanied by the Richmond Fayette Artillery and the 1st Virginia Infantry, Company F (1st). The company was ordered to Spotswood Hotel, on the corner of Main & Eighth Streets, Richmond, Virginia, on 23 April, 1861.

Mustered in one year, Richmond, Virginia, 26 April, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Company was mustered in state service for one year at Richmond, Virginia, by Colonel J B Baldwin, Provisional Army of Virginia, on 26 April, 1861.

Spotswood Hotel to Baptist College Artillery Barracks, near Fush Hill, Richmond, Virginia, 28 April, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Company was ordered to the Baptist College Artillery Barracks, near Fush Hill, Richmond, Virginia, in the morning on 28 April, 1861 (See the 4th South Carolina Infantry).

Richmond to Gloucester Point, Gloucester County, Virginia, 6-7 May, 1861: A section of the Richmond Howitzer Company, under the command of Second Lieutenant J T Brown, was ordered to proceed by the Richmond & York River Railroad to West Point, on the York River, King William County, Virginia, at 2 PM on 6 May, 1861, and arrived at 2 AM on 7 May, 1861. The company was ordered by steamer on the York River to Gloucester Point, Gloucester County, Virginia, the same day and was engaged in a skirmish with the U. S. S. Yankee on 7 May, 1861.

Note: Second Lieutenant J T Brown, Richmond Howitzer Company, was appointed captain, Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 2nd Company, at Gloucester Point, Gloucester County, Virginia, on 9 May, 1861.

Reorganised as Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st, 2nd & 3rd Companies, 8 May, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Company was reorganised as the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Companies, under the command of Major G W Randolph, at the Baptist College Artillery Barracks, near Fush Hill, Richmond, Virginia, on 8 May, 1861.

Note: First Lieutenant J C Shields, Richmond Howitzer Company, was appointed captain, Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, on 8 May, 1861, and Captain R C Stanard, 3rd Company, on 10 May, 1861.

Baptist College Artillery Barracks, near Fush Hill, to Howard's Grove, on the Mechanicsville Turnpike, near Richmond, Virginia, 10 May, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery was ordered to Howard's Grove, on the Mechanicsville Turnpike, near Richmond, Virginia, on 10 May, 1861.

Howard's Grove, on the Mechanicsville Turnpike, to Chimborazo Hill, overlooking Griffin's Springs, near Richmond, Virginia, 15 May, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery arrived at Camp Chimborazo, Chimborazo Hill, overlooking Griffin's Springs, near Richmond, Virginia, on 15 May, 1861.

Note: The Richmond Howitzer Company, 1st Company, was assigned two 12 pounder Army Howitzers and two 6 pounder smoothbores and the 2nd and 3rd Companies six navy pieces and two Parrott rifles in May 1861.

Richmond to Manassas Junction, Virginia, 24-25 May, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was ordered to proceed by the Virginia Central Railroad to Manassas Junction, Virginia, by Special Orders No.100, Paragraph III, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, in the morning on 24 May, 1861, dated 22 May, 1861, and arrived by the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, via Gordonsville, Orange County, Virginia, in the evening on 25 May, 1861.

Richmond & Gloucester Point, Gloucester County, to Yorktown, York County, Virginia, 2nd Company, 26 & 27 , 1861: A detachment of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 2nd Company, stationed at Gloucester Point, Gloucester County, Virginia, under the command of Captain J T Brown, was ordered to proceed on the York River to Yorktown, York County, Virginia, on 26 May, 1861, and a detachment stationed at Camp Chimborazo, Chimborazo Hill, overlooking Griffin's Springs, near Richmond, Virginia, arrived at Yorktown, York County, Virginia, on 27 May, 1861.

Richmond to Yorktown, York County, Virginia, 3rd Company, 4 June, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 3rd Company, was ordered to proceed by the Richmond & York River Railroad to West Point, on the York River, King William County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.142, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, in the morning on 4 June, 1861, dated 3 June, 1861.

General Orders No.25, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, 8 June, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was assigned to the Confederate States by General Orders No.25, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, on 8 June, 1861, and was accepted in Confederate service on 1 July, 1861.

Note: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was assigned to the First Brigade, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Brigadier General M L Bonham, by General Orders No.20, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 20 June, 1861, and was stationed at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, in the evening on 22 June, 1861.

Manassas Junction to Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, 28 June, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was ordered to Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.70, Paragraph II, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 28 June, 1861, dated 27 June, 1861, and arrived at Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, the same day.

Note: The Black Horse Troop, the Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, and the Hanover Light Dragoons were stationed at Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 29 June, 1861.

Mills Crossroads, between Falls Church & Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, 3-4 July, 1861: A section of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, under the command of Captain J C Shields, was ordered to Fairfax Courthouse Square, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 10 PM on 3 July, 1861, and was ordered to Mills Crossroads, between Falls Church and Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, under the command of Colonel J B Kershaw, 2nd South Carolina Infantry, and Lieutenant Colonel T T Munford, 30th Virginia Cavalry, to engage Federal pickets in the morning on 4 July, 1861. The section of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery was accompanied by four companies of the 2nd South Carolina Infantry, the Black Horse Troop and the 30th Virginia Cavalry, Company G, and was ordered to Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 4 July, 1861.

Note: One 6 pounder smootbore and one 12 pounder Army howitzer, under the command of Second Lieutenant E S McCarthy and Corporal H S Williams, were assigned to Colonel J B Kershaw, 2nd South Carolina Infantry, at Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 10 PM on 3 July, 1861.

Withdrawal to Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 17-18 July, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was ordered to withdraw to Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel T T Munford, at 8.30 AM on 17 July, 1861, and was accompanied by the 7th South Carolina Infantry, and the 30th Virginia Cavalry, Companies C and G. The 30th Virginia Cavalry, Company G, was assigned as escort to the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, on 17 July, 1861, and arrived at Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, via Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 2 AM on 18 July, 1861.

Note: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 4th Company, was organised, under the command of Captain N B Binford, at Richmond, Virginia, on 18 July, 1861, and was disbanded prior to muster in Confederate service on 29 August, 1861.

After the first battle of Manassas the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was stationed at Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, in the evening on 21 July, 1861.

Follow & observe the enemy near Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, 22 July, 1861: A section of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, under the command of First Lieutenant W P Palmer, was ordered to follow and observe the enemy, to pick up stragglers, and secure relinquished property near Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, 8 AM on 22 July, 1861, and was accompanied by the 3rd South Carolina Infantry, the 7th South Carolina Infantry, and the Hanover Light Dragoons. The section arrived at Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the morning the same day and was ordered to Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, in the evening on 22 July, 1861.

Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, 23 July, 1861: A section of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, under the command of First Lieutenant W P Palmer, was ordered to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.146, Paragraph I, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, at 12 PM on 23 July, 1861, dated 22 July, 1861, and a section, under the command of Second Lieutenant E S McCarthy, was ordered on a reconnaissance to Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, the same day.

Note: A section of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, under the command of First Lieutenant W P Palmer, arrived at Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 2 PM on 23 July, 1861.

Centreville to Vienna, Fairfax County, Virginia, 23-24 July, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was ordered to Vienna, Fairfax County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.149, Paragraph I, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, at 8 PM on 23 July, 1861, dated the same day and arrived at Camp Gregg, near Vienna, via Germantown, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the morning on 24 July, 1861.

Note: A section of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, under the command of Second Lieutenant E S McCarthy, was ordered to rendezvous with the First Brigade, Army of the Potomac, at Germantown, Fairfax County, in the evening on 23 July, 1861, and the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was assigned to the Fourth Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Brigadier General J Longstreet, by Special Orders No.169, Paragraph I, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, on 25 July, 1861.

Organisation of Fourth Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, 25 July, 1861: 1st Virginia Infantry, 7th Virginia Infantry, 11th Virginia Infantry, 17th Virginia Infantry, Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company; 30th Virginia Cavalry, Companies B, E, F, and I

Vienna to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, 27 July, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was ordered to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.169, Paragraph II, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, in the morning on 27 July, 1861, dated 25 July, 1861, and arrived at Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the evening the same day.

Note: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was assigned to the Fourth Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Brigadier General J Longstreet, by Special Orders No.169, Paragraph II, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, on 25 July, 1861, and the Loudoun Artillery by Special Orders No.216, Paragraph II, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 9 August, 1861 (See the Loudoun Artillery).

Centreville, Fairfax County, to Leesburg, Loudoun County, Virginia, 11 August, 1861: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was ordered to Leesburg, Loudoun County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.216, Paragraph I, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, in the morning on 11 August, 1861, dated 9 August, 1861, and arrived at Carter's Mill, near Leesburg, via Gum Spring and Ball's Mills, Loudoun County, Virginia, at 6.30 PM the same day.

Note: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was assigned to the Seventh Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Colonel N G Evans, cavalry, Confederate States Army, by Special Orders No.216, Paragraph I, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 9 August, 1861.

Surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Appomattox County, Virginia, 9 April, 1865: The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Appomattox County, Virginia, on 9 April, 1865.

Brigadier General M L Bonham, Confederate States Army, First Brigade, Army of the Potomac: Major General M L Bonham, South Carolina Militia, was appointed brigadier general, Confederate States Army, on 23 April, 1861, and arrived by the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad at Richmond, Virginia, at 6 PM on 24 April, 1861. He was accompanied by the 1st South Carolina Infantry, Companies A, B, C, E, H, I, K, and L, and was assigned to command the Department of Alexandria and establish headquarters at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, by Special Orders No.95, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, on 21 May, 1861 (See the 1st South Carolina Infantry). Brigadier General M L Bonham, Confederate States Army, was ordered to proceed by the Virginia Central Railroad to Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 22 May, 1861, and was accompanied by the 1st South Carolina Infantry. He arrived by the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, via Culpeper Courthouse, Culpeper County, and Gordonsville, Orange County, Virginia, on 23 May, 1861, and was assigned to command the the troops stationed at Fairfax County, Virginia, and the 2nd South Carolina Infantry by Special Orders No. 1 and General Orders No.9, Headquarters, Department of Alexandria, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 4 June, 1861 (See the 2nd South Carolina Infantry). Brigadier General M L Bonham, Confederate States Army, was ordered to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, between 4 and 9 June, 1861, and was accompanied by the Black Horse Troop (See Munford's Squadron Cavalry). He was assigned to command the First Brigade, Army of the Potomac, by General Orders No.20, Paragraph I, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 20 June, 1861, and reappointed brigadier general, Confederate States Army, on 21 October, 1861, dated 14 July, 1861.

Note: Brigadier general P G T Beauregard assumed command of the Department of Alexandria at Camp Pickens, near Manassas Junction, Virginia, on 2 June, 1861.

The Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, was assigned to the Fourth Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Brigadier General J Longstreet, by Special Orders No.169, Paragraph I, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, on 25 July, 1861.

Reports

OFFICIAL REPORT No.86: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), pp518-521
Brigadier General M L Bonham, Confederate States Army, First Brigade, Army of the Potomac, dated Camp Gregg, near Vienna, Fairfax County, Virginia, 1 August, 1861