The Fourth Alabama Painting by Don Troiani

First Brigade, Army of the Potomac

Lieutenant Colonel T T Munford, 30th Virginia Cavalry

Lieutenant Colonel T T Munford, 30th Virginia Cavalry

Munford's Squadron Cavalry

Black Horse Troop arrived at Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, 9 May, 1861, and Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, 8 May, 1861. Mustered in Confederate service for one year dated 1 July, 1861. Stationed in the rear between Island and Mitchell's Fords, on the Bull Run River, 21 July, 1861

LIEUTENANT COLONEL T T MUNFORD,
Lieutenant Colonel T T Munford, 30th Virginia Cavalry, was assigned to command Munford's Squadron Cavalry, on 20 July, 1861.

Unlettered Company Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B: CAPT. W B BALL
The company was accepted in state service at Manchester, Chesterfield County, Virginia, on 23 April, 1861, and was mustered in state service at Camp Lee, Hermitage Agricultural Fairgrounds, between the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad and Deep Run Turnpike, two miles northwest of the Capitol, Captiol Hill, Richmond, Virginia, by Lieutenant Colonel & Assistant Adjutant General J Seldon, Provisional Army of Virginia, on 25 April, 1861. The company was assigned to Munford'd Squadron Cavalry on 20 July, 1861, and to the Seventh Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Colonel W H Jenifer, on 11 August, 1861. The company was assigned to the 4th Virginia Cavalry, Company B, by Special Orders No.248, Adjutant & Inspector General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, on 4 September 1861.
Unlettered Company Black Horse Troop: CAPT. W H PAYNE
The company was organised at Waterloo, Fauquier County, Virginia, under the command of Captain J Scott, on 18 June, 1859, and Captain J Scott, Black Horse Troop, was appointed captain, cavalry, Confederate States Army, on 11 March, 1861 (See Scott's Squadron Cavalry). The company was accepted in state service at Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia, on 25 April, 1861, and Private W H Payne, Black Horse Troop, was appointed captain, Black Horse Troop, on 27 April, 1861. The company was mustered in state service at Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia, by Colonel E Hunton, Provisional Army of Virginia, on 7 May, 1861, and was assigned to Munford's Squadron Cavalry on 20 July, 1861 (See the 8th Virginia Infantry). The company was assigned to the 4th Virginia Cavalry, Company H, by Special Orders No.248, Adjutant & Inspector General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, on 4 September 1861, and Captain W H Payne was appointed major, 4th Virginia Cavalry, on 11 September, 1861. First Lieutenant R Randolph, Black Horse Troop, was appointed captain on 19 September, 1861.

Sources

"Wm. H. Payne has been elected Captain of the Fauquier Black Horse, and with his Company is now in Camp at Dumfries.s"

The Alexandria Gazette, 29 April, 1861

"Among the troops encamped here are the following companies: Cavalry - Governor's Guard; Chesterfield, company B; Hanover Troop; Henrico Troop; Amelia Light Dragoons."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 14 May, 1861 - Camp Ashland, Hanover co., Va., 12 May, 1861

"Tuesday evening two companies were transported with their horses and provisions, on the Central Railroad. This evening the Governor's Guard and the Chesterfield Troop will leave in the evening the same way, and to the same destination."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 31 May, 1861 - Camp Ashland, Hanover County, 30 May, 1861

"Four companies of the First Regiment of Virginia Volunteers were at Fairfax Court-House on Monday evening, besides the Warrenton Rifles and five Cavalry Companies, viz.; Ball's, Chesterfield corps; Wickham's, (Hanover,) Prince William, Rappahannock and Black Horse Cavalry, of Fauquier. It was thought probable that Col. Maxcy Gregg's South Carolinians would take the place of the Richmond companies, and permit them to rejoin their Regiment at Manassas Junction."

The Richmond Daily Dispatch, 19 June, 1861 - Military

"I continued to work with the Black Horse and Chesterfield Troop until five more pieces of cannon were hitched up, including the heavy 32-pounder and all the caissons, forges &c."

The Virginia Regimental Histories Series, Second Virginia Cavalry, First Edition, No.990 of 1000, by R J Driver, Jr. & H E Howard

"At the battle of Bull Run the Black Horse won its first spurs. Sir William Russell, who represented the London Times as war correspondent, wrote such a graphic and amusing account of the terror which the black horses of the Virginians inspired, that he afterward became known in both armies by the sobriquet of Bull Run Russell."

Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 30: Black Horse Troop, some reminiscences of thier famous command, from the Baltimore, Md., Herald, February, 1902

Alexandria Gazette, Volume 100, No. 168, 19 July, 1899 - The Black Horse Cavalry

Supplement to the Official Records: Part II, Record of Events, Volume 69, Serial No.81: Record of events for Fourth Virginia Cavalry, April 1861-November 1864, edited by James B Hewett

The Virginia Regimental Histories Series: Fourth Virginia Cavalry, Second Edition, by K L Stiles

The Virginia Regimental Histories Series: Sixth Virginia Cavalry, Second Edition, by M Musick

A guide to Virginia military organisations 1861-1865, Revised Second Edition by I A Wallace, Jr.

Notes

Black Horse Troop

The Black Horse Troop was organised at Waterloo, Fauquier County, Virginia, under the command of Captain J Scott, on 18 June, 1859, and Captain J Scott, Black Horse Troop, was appointed captain, cavalry, Confederate States Army, on 11 March, 1861.

Seizure of Harpers Ferry Arsenal & Armory, on Shenandoah & Potomac Streets, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, 16-18 April, 1861: The Black Horse Troop was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, under the command of First Lieutenant B Randolph, in the evening on 16 April, 1861, and was accompanied by Fauquier Mountain Rangers, under First Lieutenant R Ashby (See the 7th Virginia Cavalry). The company arrived at Halltown, Jefferson County, Virginia, in the evening on 18 April, 1861, and at Bolivar Heights, one and a half miles west of Bolivar, Jefferson County, Virginia, at 10 PM the same day. The Black Horse Troop was ordered to Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, at 12 AM on 19 April, 1861.

Note: The Black Horse Troop was stationed at Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, Virginia, and Berlin Bridge, on the Potomac River, opposite Berlin, Frederick County, Maryland, under the command of Major General K Harper, Fifth Division, Virginia Militia, between 19 and 21 April, 1861 (See the 5th Virginia Infantry).

Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, to Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia, 22 & 27 April, 1861: The Black Horse Troop arrived at Leesburg, Loudoun County, in the morning on 22 April, 1861, and Private W H Payne, Black Horse Troop, was appointed captain, Black Horse Troop, on 27 April, 1861.

Note: The Black Horse Troop was ordered to Dumfries, Prince William County, Virginia, on 27 April, 1861, and the Black Horse Troop and the Warrenton Rifles were stationed at White Sulphur Springs, on the Rappahannock River, four miles southeast of Waterloo, Fauquier County, Virginia, on 4 May, 1861.

Mustered in one year, Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia, 7 May, 1861: The Black Horse Troop was mustered in state service for one year at Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia, by Colonel E Hunton, Provisional Army of Virginia,on 7 May, 1861 (See the 8th Virginia Infantry).

Note: The Black Horse Troop was guarding public property at White Sulphur Springs, on the Rappahannock River, four miles southeast of Waterloo, Fauquier County, Virginia, on 7 May, 1861.

White Sulphur Springs, on the Rappahannock River, four miles southeast of Waterloo, Fauquier County, to Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, 8-9 May 1861: The Black Horse Troop was ordered to Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, the on 8 May, 1861, and arrived at Warrenton, Fauquier County, Virginia, at 12 PM on 9 May, 1861. The company was accompanied by the Powhatan Troop and arrived at Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, in the evening on 9 May, 1861 (See the Powhatan Troop).

Headquarters, Department of Alexandria, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, 10 May, 1861: The Black Horse Troop and the Powhatan Troop were assigned to Headquarters, Department of Alexandria, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, under the command Captain W H F Payne, Black Horse Troop, on 10 May, 1861 (See Lay's Squadron Cavalry).

Manassas, Prince William County, to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, 4-9 June, 1861: The Black Horse Troop was ordered to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, between 4 and 9 June, 1861, and was accompanied by Brigadier General M L Bonham, Confederate States Army (See the First Brigade, Army of the Potomac).

Note: The Powhatan Troop and the Albemarle Light Horse were assigned to Headquarters, Department of Alexandria, at Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, under the command of Captain J F Lay, Powhatan Troop, by Special Orders No.14, Headquarters, Department of Alexandria, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 9 June, 1861, and Brigadier General M L Bonham, Confederate States Army, was assigned to command the the troops stationed at Fairfax County, Virginia, and the 2nd South Carolina Infantry by Special Orders No. 1 and General Orders No.9, Headquarters, Department of Alexandria, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 4 June, 1861 (See the First Brigade, Army of the Potomac).

Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, 16 June, 1861: The Black Horse Troop was stationed at Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 16 June, 1861.

Note: The Black Horse Troop, the Prince William Cavalry, the Hanover Light Dragoons, the Rappahannock Cavalry, and the Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, were stationed at Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 16 June, 1861.

Mills Crossroads, four miles northeast of Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, 4 July, 1861: The Black Horse Troop was ordered to Mills Crossroads, four miles northeast of Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, under the command of Colonel J B Kershaw, 2nd South Carolina Infantry, and Lieutenant Colonel T T Munford, 30th Virginia Cavalry, to engage Federal pickets on 4 July, 1861, and was accompanied by four companies of the 2nd South Carolina Infantry, a section of the Richmond Howitzer Battalion Artillery, 1st Company, and the 30th Virginia Cavalry, Company G. The Black Horse Troop was ordered to Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, the same day.

Withdrawal to Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 17 July, 1861: The Black Horse Troop was ordered to withdraw to Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, under the command of Colonel R C W Radford, 30th Virginia Cavalry, at 8.30 AM on 17 July, 1861, and was accompanied by the 8th South Carolina Infantry, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel J W Henagon, the Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, and the Fairfax Cavalry. The company was assigned to guard duty at Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the evening on 17 July, 1861, and was ordered to Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, at 12 AM, on 18 July, 1861.

Island & Mitchell's Fords, on the Bull Run River, 21 July, 1861: The Black Horse Troop was stationed in the rear between Island and Mitchell's Fords, on the Bull Run River, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel T T Munford, 30th Virginia Cavalry, on 21 July, 1861 (See the 30th Virginia Cavalry).

After the first battle of Manassas the Black Horse Troop was assigned to Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Brigadier General P G T Beauregard, Confederate States Army, by Special Orders No.154, Paragraph II, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 23 July, 1861.

The Black Horse Troop was assigned to the 4th Virginia Cavalry, Company H, under the command of Colonel B H Robertson, by Special Orders No.248, Adjutant & Inspector General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, on 4 September, 1861, and was ordered to rendezvous at Sangster's or W Elzey's Crossroads, two miles south of Fairfax Station, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 19 September, 1861.

Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B

The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was accepted in state service at Chesterfield County, Virginia, on 17 April, 1861, and was stationed at Leesburg, Loudoun County, Virginia, on 23 April, 1861.

Mustered in one year, Camp Lee, Hermitage Agricultural Fairgrounds, between the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad & Deep Run Turnpike, two miles northwest of the Capitol, Captiol Hill, Richmond, Virginia, 25 April, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was mustered in state service for one year at Camp Lee, Hermitage Agricultural Fairgrounds, between the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad and Deep Run Turnpike, two miles northwest of the Capitol, Captiol Hill, Richmond, Virginia, by Lieutenant Colonel & Assistant Adjutant General J Seldon, Provisional Army of Virginia, on 25 April, 1861.

Hermitage Agricultural Fairgrounds, between the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad & Deep Run Turnpike, two miles northwest of the Capitol, Captiol Hill, Richmond, to Ashland, Hanover County, Virginia, 2 May, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was ordered to Ashland, Hanover County, Virginia, by General Orders No.9, Headquarters of the Division, Richmond, Virginia, on 2 May, 1861.

Note: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was stationed at Camp Ashland, Slash Cottage, on the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad, west of Ashland, Hanover County, Virginia, on 8 May, 1861.

Slash Cottage, on the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad, west of Ashland, Hanover County, Virginia, to Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, 30-31 May, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was ordered to proceed by the Virginia Central Railroad to Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.127, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, in the evening on 30 May, 1861, dated 27 May, 1861, and was accompanied by the Governor's Mounted Guard. The company arrived by the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 31 May, 1861 (See Jenifer's Battalion Cavalry).

Manassas Junction, Prince William County, to Fairfax Station, Fairfax County, Virginia, 31 May, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was ordered to Fairfax Station, Fairfax County, Virginia, under the command of Major J Harrison, Provisional Army of Virginia, on 31 May, 1861, and was accompanied by the Governor's Mounted Guard, the Goochland Light Dragoons, and the Hanover Light Dragoons (See Harrison's Battalion Cavalry).

Special Orders No.10, Headquarters, Department of Alexandria, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, 6 June, 1861: Captain W B Ball, Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was ordered to Richmond, Virginia, to procure accoutrements by Special Orders No.10, Headquarters, Department of Alexandria, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 6 June, 1861.

Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, 16 June, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was stationed in the vicinity of Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 16 June, 1861.

Note: The Prince William Cavalry, the Hanover Light Dragoons, the Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, the Rappahannock Cavalry, and the Black Horse Troop were stationed at Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 16 June, 1861.

Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, to Frying Pan Church, on the old Ox Road, Fairfax County, Virginia, 16 June, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was ordered to Frying Pan Church, on the old Ox Road, Fairfax County, Virginia, under the command of Colonel M Gregg, 1st South Carolina Infantry, in the morning on 16 June, 1861, and was accompanied by the 1st South Carolina Infantry and a detachment of the Hanover Light Dragoons.

Note: A section of the Alexandria Artillery, under the command of Captain D Kemper, and the 30th Virginia Cavalry, Company A, and a detachment of the 30th Virginia Cavalry, Company B, under the command of Captain W R Terry, arrived at Frying Pan Church, on the old Ox Road, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the afternoon on 16 June, 1861.

Frying Pan Church, on the old Ox Road, to Dranesville, Fairfax County, Virginia, 16 June, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, arrived at Dranesville, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the evening on 16 June, 1861.

Skirmish on the Alexandria, Loudoun & Hampshire Railroad, a quarter of a mile southeast of Vienna, Fairfax County, Virginia, 17 June, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was ordered to Hunter's Mills, on Difficult Run, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 17 June, 1861, and arrived at Vienna, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 4 PM the same day. The company was stationed on Ayr(e), Fairfax County, Virginia, during the skirmish on the Alexandria, Loudoun & Hampshire Railroad, a quarter of a mile southeast of Vienna, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 6 PM on 17 June, 1861 (See the Skirmish at Vienna).

Vienna to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, 17-18 June, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was ordered to Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, in the evening on 17 June, 1861, and arrived via Flint Hill, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 1 AM on 18 June, 1861.

Note: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was stationed at Fairfax Courthouse, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 28 June, 1861.

Withdrawal to Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, 17-18 July, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was ordered to withdraw to Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, under the command of Colonel R C W Radford, at 8.30 AM on 17 July, 1861, and was accompanied by the 8th South Carolina Infantry, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel J W Henagon, the Black Horse Troop, and the Fairfax Cavalry. The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, arrived at Mitchell's Ford, on the Bull Run River, via Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, at 12 AM, on 18 July, 1861.

Island & Mitchell's Fords, on the Bull Run River, 21 July, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was stationed in the rear between Island and Mitchell's Fords, on the Bull Run River, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel T T Munford, 30th Virginia Cavalry, on 21 July, 1861 (See the 30th Virginia Cavalry).

After the first battle of Manassas the Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was stationed at Mitchell's Fords, on the Bull Run River, in the evening on 21 July, 1861.

Note: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was assigned to Colonel N G Evans, cavalry, Confederate States Army, by Special Orders No.154, Paragraph III, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 23 July, 1861, and to the Seventh Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Colonel N G Evans, cavalry, Confederate States Army, on 25 July, 1861.

Centreville, Fairfax County, to Carter's Mill, on Goose Creek, four miles north of Aldie, Leesburg, Loudoun County, Virginia, 9-11 August, 1861: The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was ordered to Leesburg, Loudoun County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.212, Paragraph I, Headquarters, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 9 August, 1861, dated 8 August, 1861, and arrived at Carter's Mill, on Goose Creek, four miles north of Aldie, Loudoun County, Virginia, on 11 August, 1861.

The Chesterfield Troop, Company B, was assigned to the 4th Virginia Cavalry, Company B, under the command of Colonel B H Robertson, by Special Orders No.248, Adjutant & Inspector General's Office, Richmond, Virginia, on 4 September, 1861, and was ordered to rendezvous at Sangster's or W Elzey's Crossroads, two miles south of Fairfax Station, Fairfax County, Virginia, on 19 September, 1861.

Munford's Squadron cavalry

Disbanded at Lynchburg, Virginia, 11 April, 1865: The 4th Virginia Cavalry was disbanded at Lynchburg, Virginia, on 11 April, 1865.

Brigadier General M L Bonham, Confederate States Army, First Brigade, Army of the Potomac: Major General M L Bonham, South Carolina Militia, was appointed brigadier general, Confederate States Army, on 23 April, 1861, and arrived by the Richmond & Petersburg Railroad at Richmond, Virginia, at 6 PM on 24 April, 1861. He was accompanied by the 1st South Carolina Infantry, Companies A, B, C, E, H, I, K, and L, and was assigned to command the Department of Alexandria and set up headquarters at Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, by Special Orders No.95, Headquarters, Virginia Forces, Richmond, Virginia, on 21 May, 1861 (See the 1st South Carolina Infantry). Brigadier General M L Bonham, Confederate States Army, was ordered to proceed by the Virginia Central Railroad to Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 22 May, 1861, and was accompanied by the 1st South Carolina Infantry. He arrived by the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 23 May, 1861, and was assigned to command the the troops stationed at Fairfax County, Virginia, and the 2nd South Carolina Infantry by Special Orders No. 1 and General Orders No.9, Headquarters, Department of Alexandria, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 4 June, 1861 (See the 2nd South Carolina Infantry). Brigadier General M L Bonham, Confederate States Army, was ordered to Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, between 4 and 9 June, 1861, and was accompanied by the Black Horse Troop (See Munford's Squadron Cavalry). He was assigned to command the First Brigade, Army of the Potomac, by General Orders No.20, Paragraph I, Headquarters, Army of the Potomac, Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 20 June, 1861, and reappointed brigadier general, Confederate States Army, on 21 October, 1861, dated 14 July, 1861.

Note: Brigadier General P G T Beauregard, Confederate States Army, assumed command of the Department of Alexandria at Camp Pickens, Manassas Junction, Prince William County, Virginia, on 2 June, 1861.

The Chesterfield Light Dragoons, Company B, was assigned to the Seventh Brigade, First Corps, Army of the Potomac, under the command of Colonel N G Evans, cavalry, Confederate States Army, on 25 July, 1861.

Reports

OFFICIAL REPORT NO.93: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), Chapter IX, pp534-535
Lieutenant Colonel T T Munford, Thirtieth Virginia Cavalry, dated Cavalry Camp, in the vicinity of Centreville, Fairfax County, Virginia, 24 July, 1861

OFFICIAL REPORT No.86: Series I, Volume 2 (Serial No.2), pp518-521
Brigadier General M L Bonham, Confederate States Army, First Brigade, Army of the Potomac, dated Camp Gregg, in the vicinity of Vienna, Fairfax County, Virginia, 1 August, 1861